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mud facts (2)

# mud facts (2)

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mud facts
mud facts

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07/08/2013

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MOUSTAFA SHEDDID

HYDRODYNAMICS:
Viscosity of Fluids
:All fluids exhibit a certain resistance to flow, In general terms, a fluid is often described as being thick or thin.A thick fluid crude oil has a high viscosity than thin fluid such as water.In general viscosity is defined as the relationship the shear stress (flow pressure) and the shear rate (flow rate),shear stress and shear rate cause deformation of mud matter and thus effect the flow property of the drillingfluid.1.
Shear stress:
It can define as the force required to overcome the fluid resistance to flow divided by the area that force actingon.Shear stress (t) =force applied (dynes) / A (cm
2
)

= dunes / cm
2
Where A is the surface area subjected to stress.2.
Shear rate:
It can be defined as the relative viscosity of the fluid layers, or elements divided by their normal separationdistance.Shear rate (y) = V(cm/sec) / H(cm) = sec
-1
FIGUREAssume that two flat plates are placed parallel too each other, at 1 cm apart the top plat is free to move, whilethe bottom plat is fixed , the space between the two plates is filled with fluid . so if a force is then applied to thetop plat , so that it moves with a constant velocity of 1 cm /sec, that force will be transmitted to the fluid , thuscausing the layers within to move also but with different rates. The layers that is close to the moving plate willmove approximately with the same velocity of the plat, while the movement of the force that is transmittedthrough the layers diminishes until the movement at the fixed plat is nearly equal zero.Thus viscosity can be defined as a measure of the resistance of a fluid to flow.Viscosity = shear stress / shear rate.
Drill Fluid Rheology
:

heology can be defined as the science of the deformation of the flow of matter .It as usually described by viscosity and gel strength.Types of flow regimes:
Laminar flow.
Turbulent flow. N.B. The type of flow is usually depending on the flow rate (SPM * POP), the flow pressure and the relative of the flow channel.
Laminar flow:
Is generally associated with low flow rate, low fluid velocities and with fluid movement in uniform layers. Inlaminar flow the force (pressure) required to induce flow increases as the fluid velocity increase. CURVEIn laminar flow ,the fluid particles tend to move in straight lines parallel to direction of flow. The layers near thewall of the flow channel tend to move at a lower velocity than that which exist in the center of the flow channel,

thus the flow profile of the fluid in case of laminar flow when move a cylindrical pipe will be in a sort of concentric cylinder.FIGURE
Turbulent flow:
In generally occurs at high flow rates, high fluid velocities, and is characterized by an erratic , randommovement of the drilling fluid particles.A flowing fluid is generally considered to be an either laminar or turbulent flow.There is a very critical period called transitional period between two regimes when the movement of fluid particles is no longer complete laminar, nor has it yet become complete random .I.e.: If the flow pressure is reduced slightly , the fluid particles will return to the laminar movement. Conversely,if the flow pressure is increased sufficiently the fluid particles will assume the random flow patterns associatedwith the turbulent flow.This transition occurs at some critical velocity , which is generally governed by the ratio of the fluids internalforces to its viscous forces this ratio is called Reynolds number (N
re
) N
re
= [diameter of the flow channel *average flow velocity * fluid density ]/ fluid viscosityCURVE
N.B.
Shear stress and shear rate data, allows accurate determinations of the fluid behavior under varying flowconditions .This data then provides the basis for further calculations used to determine several important aspects related tothe drilling fluids parameters.I.e. : proper understanding and application of rheological principles can be valuable aid in determination of dynamic performance of drilling fluid in order to establish and maintain the most effective properties for efficient and economical drilling fluid performance.
These further calculations are
:1.Fluid velocity.2.Calculation of the system pressure losses.3.Calculation of surge and swab pressures.4.Bit and jet nozzle hydraulics.5.Relative hole cleaning efficiency.6.Equivalent circulating density.7.Estimation of the relative extent of hole erosion.
Reynolds Number:
a. In pipe Nr = 15.46 dvw / PV. b. In annulus Nr = 15.46(dh-dp) vw / PV.Fluid velocity (ft/min) :
a.
In pipe V = 24.51 GPM / d
2
.
b.
In annulus V = 24.51 GPM / (dh
2
– dp
2
) OR = POP (bbl/min)/ Ann. Vol.(bbl/ft).Critical Velocity (ft/min):
a.
In pipe V = 64.57 PV + 64.57 [(PV)
2
+ 12.3 d
2
YP W] / wd.
b.
In annulus V = 64.57 PV+ 64.57 [(PV)
2
+9.26(dh – dp)
2
YP W] /w(dh – dp).Slip Velocity Vs(ft/min):
a.
Laminar Flow = 3210 (Wc – W) D
2
V / 339 YP (dh – dp )+ PV V.