thus the flow profile of the fluid in case of laminar flow when move a cylindrical pipe will be in a sort of concentric cylinder.FIGURE
In generally occurs at high flow rates, high fluid velocities, and is characterized by an erratic , randommovement of the drilling fluid particles.A flowing fluid is generally considered to be an either laminar or turbulent flow.There is a very critical period called transitional period between two regimes when the movement of fluid particles is no longer complete laminar, nor has it yet become complete random .I.e.: If the flow pressure is reduced slightly , the fluid particles will return to the laminar movement. Conversely,if the flow pressure is increased sufficiently the fluid particles will assume the random flow patterns associatedwith the turbulent flow.This transition occurs at some critical velocity , which is generally governed by the ratio of the fluids internalforces to its viscous forces this ratio is called Reynolds number (N
= [diameter of the flow channel *average flow velocity * fluid density ]/ fluid viscosityCURVE
Shear stress and shear rate data, allows accurate determinations of the fluid behavior under varying flowconditions .This data then provides the basis for further calculations used to determine several important aspects related tothe drilling fluids parameters.I.e. : proper understanding and application of rheological principles can be valuable aid in determination of dynamic performance of drilling fluid in order to establish and maintain the most effective properties for efficient and economical drilling fluid performance.
These further calculations are
:1.Fluid velocity.2.Calculation of the system pressure losses.3.Calculation of surge and swab pressures.4.Bit and jet nozzle hydraulics.5.Relative hole cleaning efficiency.6.Equivalent circulating density.7.Estimation of the relative extent of hole erosion.
a. In pipe Nr = 15.46 dvw / PV. b. In annulus Nr = 15.46(dh-dp) vw / PV.Fluid velocity (ft/min) :
In pipe V = 24.51 GPM / d
In annulus V = 24.51 GPM / (dh
) OR = POP (bbl/min)/ Ann. Vol.(bbl/ft).Critical Velocity (ft/min):
In pipe V = 64.57 PV + 64.57 [(PV)
+ 12.3 d
YP W] / wd.
In annulus V = 64.57 PV+ 64.57 [(PV)
+9.26(dh – dp)
YP W] /w(dh – dp).Slip Velocity Vs(ft/min):
Laminar Flow = 3210 (Wc – W) D
V / 339 YP (dh – dp )+ PV V.