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Chapter 9

Chapter 9

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Published by anil.gelra5140

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Published by: anil.gelra5140 on Mar 13, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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oil is one of the most important natural resources. It supports thegrowth of plants by holding theroots firmly and supplying water andnutrients. It is the home for many organisms. Soil is essential for agriculture. Agriculture provides food,clothing and shelter for all. Soil is thusan inseparable part of our life. Theearthy fragrance of soil after the first rainis always refreshing.
9.1 S9.1 S9.1 S9.1 S9.1 S
 T  T  T  T 
One day during the rainy season Paheliand Boojho observed an earthwormcoming out of the soil. Paheli wondered whether there were other organisms alsoin the soil. Let us find out.
 Activity 9.1 Activity 9.1 Activity 9.1 Activity 9.1 Activity 9.1
Collect some soil samples and observethem carefully. You can use a hand lens.Examine each sample carefully and fillin Table 9.1.
Discuss your observations with your friends.
 Are the soil samplescollected by your friendssimilar to the ones collected by  you?Boojho and Paheli haveused soil in many ways. They enjoy playing with it. It is a great fun indeed.Make a list of the uses of soil.
Fig. 9.1Fig. 9.1Fig. 9.1Fig. 9.1Fig. 9.1 Children playing with soil 
 Table 9.1 Table 9.1 Table 9.1 Table 9.1 Table 9.1
S.S.S.S.S.Soil sourceSoil sourceSoil sourceSoil sourceSoil sourcePlantsPlantsPlantsPlantsPlants Animals Animals Animals Animals Animals Any other  Any other  Any other  Any other  Any other No.No.No.No.No.observationsobservationsobservationsobservationsobservations1.Garden soilGrass, .Ant, .2.Soil from the roadside3.Soil from the area whereconstruction is going on…………4.5.
9.2 S9.2 S9.2 S9.2 S9.2 S
Soil is composed of distinct layers.Perform the following activity to find out how these layers are arranged.
 Activity 9.2 Activity 9.2 Activity 9.2 Activity 9.2 Activity 9.2
 Take a little soil. Break the clumps with your hand to powder it. Now take a glasstumbler, three quarters filled with water,and then add a handful of soil to it. Stir it well with a stick to dissolve the soil.Now let it stand undisturbed for sometime (Fig. 9.2). Afterwards, observe it andanswer the following questions:
Do you see layers of particles of different sizes in the glass tumbler?
Draw a diagram showing these layers.
 Are there some dead rotting leavesor animal remains floating on water? The rotting dead matter in the soil iscalledhumushumushumushumushumus. You probably know that the soil isformed by the breaking down of rocks by the action of wind, water and climate. This process is called weathering weathering weathering weathering weathering. Thenature of any soil depends upon therocks from which it has been formed andthe type of vegetation that grows in it. A vertical section through different layers of the soil is called thesoil profilesoil profilesoil profilesoil profilesoil profile.Each layer differs in feel (texture),Polythene bags and plastics pollutethe soil. They also kill the organismsliving in the soil. That is why there isa demand to ban the polythene bagsand plastics. Other substances whichpollute the soil are a number of wasteproducts, chemicals and pesticides. Waste products and chemicals should be treated before they are releasedinto the soil. The use of pesticidesshould be minimised.I want to know whether thesoil from a field can be usedto make toys?
Fig. 9.2 Fig. 9.2 Fig. 9.2 Fig. 9.2 Fig. 9.2 Layers of soil 
I wonder why I found somepieces of plastic articles andpolythene bags in the soil samplecollected from the roadside andthe garden.
humus water clay sandgravel
colour, depth and chemical composition. These layers are referred to ashorizonshorizonshorizonshorizonshorizons(Fig. 9.3).soil fertile and provides nutrients togrowing plants. This layer is generally soft, porous and can retain more water.It is called thetopsoiltopsoiltopsoiltopsoiltopsoil or the A-horizon A-horizon A-horizon A-horizon A-horizon. We usually see the top surface of the soil, not the layers below it. If welook at the sides of a recently dug ditch, we can see the inner layers of the soil,too. Such a view enables us to observethe soil profile at that place. Soil profilecan also be seen while digging a well or laying the foundation of a building. It can also be seen at the sides of a roadon a hill or at a steep river bank. The uppermost horizon is generally dark in colour as it is rich in humusand minerals. The humus makes the This provides shelter for many livingorganisms such as worms, rodents,moles and beetles. The roots of smallplants are embedded entirely in thetopsoil. The next layer has a lesser amount of humus but more of minerals. Thislayer is generally harder and morecompact and is called theB-horizonB-horizonB-horizonB-horizonB-horizon or the middle layer. The third layer is theC-horizonC-horizonC-horizonC-horizonC-horizon, which is made up of small lumps of rocks with cracks and crevices. Below 
Fig. 9.3 Fig. 9.3 Fig. 9.3 Fig. 9.3 Fig. 9.3 Soil profile 

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