Sub: Engineering Topic: Civil Engineering
The Homework solutions from Classof1 are intended to help students understand the approach to solving the problem and not forsubmitting the same in lieu of their academic submissions for grades.
MIXING OF CONCRETE
After various ingredients of concrete are proportioned, the next operation is their mixing, the mixingprocess should ensure homogeneous mass uniform in colour, and segregation should not take placeduring mixing operation. There are two methods of mixing the concrete:
: Hand mixing is adopted where quantity of concrete is very small. It can also beadopted where machine for mixing is not available or where noise is not desirable. Cementand sand are first of all mixed dry on a clean, hard, impermeable platform. Dry mixing iscontinued until the mix attains uniform colour. Now this mix is spread on the measured stockof coarse aggregate in required quantity and these are mixed dry again to have uniformcolour. Shovels are used for this mixing purpose. Make hollow in the middle of the mixed pileand add about 75% of the required quantity of water. Mixing is done and the remainingquantity of water is added to acquire the uniform workability. In this method of mixing, about10% more cement is used to make good the cement lost due to possible water flowing out of the mix and also to make good strength characteristics due to inferior results of hand mixing.
: On large works where concreting work is quite large, machine mixing of concrete proves economical. Concrete produced by machine mixing is more homogeneous,and can be prepared with comparatively less w/c ratio. The concrete mixers may either bebatch type or continuous type. Batch mixers mix and discharge each load of materialsseparately, whereas continuous mixers produce steady stream of concrete so long as it is inoperation. Latter type mixers are not in common use. Batch type mixers are mostly adopted.These may be
rotary or non-tilting type