Sub: Statistics Topic: Sampling Techniques
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Difference Between Two Population Means
Here, we describe estimation and hypothesis-testing procedures for the difference between twopopulation means when the samples are dependent. In a case of two dependent samples, two datavalues
one for each sample
are collected from the same source (or element) and, hence, these arealso called paired or matched samples. For example, we may want to make inferences about themean weight loss for members of a health club after they have gone through an exercise program fora certain period of time. To do so, suppose we select a sample of 15 members of this health club andrecord their weights before and after the program. In this example, both sets of data are collectedfrom the same 15 persons, once before and once after the program. Thus, although there are twosamples, they contain the same 15 persons. This is an example of paired (or dependent or matched)samples. The procedures to make confidence intervals and test hypotheses in the case of pairedsamples are different from the ones for independent samples.Two samples are said to be
when for each data value collected from onesample there is a corresponding data value collected from the second sample, and both these datavalues are collected from the same source. As another example of paired samples, suppose anagronomist wants to measure the effect of a new brand of fertilizer on the yield of potatoes. To do so,he selects 10 pieces of land and divides each piece into two portions. Then he randomly assigns one of the two portions from each piece of land to grow potatoes without using fertilizer (or using someother brand of fertilizer). The second portion from each piece of land is used to grow potatoes withthe new brand of fertilizer. Thus, he will have 10 pairs of data values. Then, using the procedure to bediscussed in this article, he will make inferences about the difference in the mean yields of potatoeswith and without the new fertilizer. The question arises, why does the agronomist not choose 10pieces of land on which to grow potatoes without using the new brand of fertilizer and another 10pieces of land to grow potatoes by using the new brand of fertilizer? If he does so, the effect of the