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Structures and natural sustainability influence

Structures and natural sustainability influence

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Using nature, specifically trees, in order to create more sustainable structures.
Using nature, specifically trees, in order to create more sustainable structures.

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Published by: Engineers Without Borders UK on Mar 26, 2013
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Panel Presentation: HabitatAuthor: Eve WalkdenInstitution: University of Southampton
Structur 
Faculty of Engin
Abstract
Designs now have an emphasis on sustaiwe truly be sustainable and yet reduce cis possible that the solution is through naSpecifically, the tree has evolved and adthe tree can help to solve the problems oacross the globe. In addition, preventionprocesses. When looking at the internal spossibility of using these rules to adapt aWith improved knowledge of tree, a worldeforestation and the effects of climate cuses naturally-made tree joints to influenthe load response of the tree joint in ordmaterial design.
Keywords
Tree Joints, Tree Design, Biomimicry, Co
Justification
 Scientists and Engineers saw the value of and heat provided from the sun. Impatiemeant cutting trees down, diverting freshof how nature was creating the solutionsNot only must engineering design be susEngineers and Scientists commonly encoproblems can be solved through nature’snatural engineering is that struts and beknowledge of nature’s solutions can be aencountered by Engineers and Scientists.environment with the natural one. This menvironment and lifestyle can combine ef In recent years, planting trees in urban aour fuel driven society. In the developedday-to-day lifestyles. Litigation is a lesseweather conditions will affect the benefitpropagation of healthy, strong trees in thare still required in order to improve theprovide timber which is a popular and coincrease the potential strength and use oFor the survival of the world’s future, everesources. The Kyoto agreement went sobut has proved to be a challenging task f climate change can be effective. The sustworld’s soil quality. With increased tree pmore effective. This paper will follow a coresource wastage, and show tree load temaintenance knowledge.
EWB-UK National Resear
es and natural sustainability influence
Eve Walkden
eering and the Environment, University of Southampnability in order to reduce the negative impact on thests, keep the strength required, and create aestheticture’s influence, which has had 3.8 billion years to pepted to overcome many environmental constraints. Tf climate change by reducing the ‘heat-island’ effect cof soil erosion and reduced agricultural quality can btructure of the tree, the rules on optimisation can bend improve our current methods of material design awide building resource can be utilized to its maximuange on the world. This paper will introduce the starce a sustainable built environment. This research willr to create a base model for tree structural assessmposite Material, Timber, Building Resourceswhat nature provided, shelter created by trees, sprice and growing demands of society meant a faster owater supplies, and burning fossil fuels amongst othcould have formed sustainable resources from the stainable, but it must be cost effective, adaptable, econter problems with designs which cover these requirinfluence, which has had 3.8 billion years to perfect ims are found in lily pads and bamboo stems, createdkey for adapting previous designs thereby improvingOf the commonly encountered challenges, there is teans the understanding of natural design, to create tfectively.reas has been used to create urban cooling, to reducworld, problems of tree maintenance can lead to litigissue in the undeveloped world, though maintenancit can provide. When taking extreme weather variatieir environment can be achieved. The tools for analyknowledge base by which assessors can provide effecmon building resource across the globe, therefore ethis material.ry country must make some contribution to urban comeway to provide solutions in addressing the worldwir the world to achieve. By planting trees, reductionainable planting and maintenance of trees can also glantations, atmospheric quality and building resourcencept of using nature to influence more sustainable dts that are to be conducted to learn from nature’s de
h & Education Conference 2011
‘Our Global Future’ 
4
th
March 2011
57onworld around us. How canally pleasing structures? Itrfect its design.he environmental benefit of aused by urban areasachieved by natural treelearnt with the futured structural components.potential, reducingt of a research idea thatinvolve tests that assessnt and development of gs providing clean water,ption was required, thisr solutions. Considerationrt.friendly and stable.
 
ements. Occasionally theses design. One example of without man’s aid. Suchthe common problemse need to balance the builthe median over whichthe damaging effects of tion and the disruption of of the tree under extremeons into account thesing the strength of treestive maintenance. Treesfective maintenance canoling and sustainablede issue of climate change,f the heat contribution tosome way to retaining themanagement can also beesign by reducing buildingsign and increase tree
 
 
Panel Presentation: HabitatAuthor: Eve WalkdenInstitution: University of Southampton
Introduction
 A Solution
Of particular interest to this case is the ocreating more effective, economical andnature’s biggest natural static structures,could then influence the design of commBy understanding the fibre arrangementScientists, however, the structural capabiNot only does a tree support its own weiMattheck has been looking into the mechof the tree. Further understanding of theurban and harvesting trees.
Previous works
Previous research on trees and timber hagovernment body reports. This instructsand provides codes of practice for preserrequisite symptoms of tree hazards anddesign of trees is so far the only one fouMattheck’s work a finite element model hwhich have the ability to reduce notch stthe work of the biologist, Shigo who shoFigure 1). A hole, ‘notch,’ is created at thThe hole is packed, stabilising the branchsupplemented to structurally secure thebranch allowing it to shear off under heathe main structure.Internationally there is a disjointed collabinternationally recognised benchmark fordiscrepancies have been argued. Slater,attachment. His findings were based on aunder the branch bark ridge is of great ithe lack in research and literature on braFig
EWB-UK National Resear
ientation and arrangement of fibres in tree design. Tustainable designs in structures. By looking at the loit may be possible to understand the mechanics of tn materials used by Engineers.nd development of the tree, already a lot has been llity of the tree is a relatively devoid and an unusuallyht it, copes with live loading imposed by weather conanical design of trees and finding ways to investigatemechanical response could create more feasible mains been conducted, this work was used to develop Britn ways of testing and grading timber, seasoning it tation and management. Lonsdale’s report, for instandvises how to undertake remedial action. Mattheck’sd by the author to be a known guidance on the strucas been created based on the plausibility of self optiesses and provide a lightweight fatigue resistant strued the branch development at a decisive angle to the top edge due to the base development providing thand forming a collar around the initial branch growtranch in place, consequently the notch creates an iny loading or to be removed under natural processesorative effort to research this area of tree biomimicrytesting. Due to the lack in developed research it is oisputes some of Shigo’s findings using the ‘clever cliseries of winch tests, which agreed with Shigo that tportance for the branch junction.’ However, Slater alch strength.ure
 
1: Shigo’s Branch Development
h & Education Conference 2011
‘Our Global Future’ 
4
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March 2011
58is could be the answer tod response of trees, one of is natural material whicharnt by Biologists andcomplex research area.ditions. More recentlythe structural relationshiptenance programs forish Standards, andsuitable standards for use,ce, looks into the pre-report on the naturalural design of trees. Inised biological structurescture. Mattheck referencesprimary growth (seee link to the tree system.. The collar is annuallyerent weakness in theithout inferring damage to, and therefore there is noly recently that’ theory of branchhe ‘zone of xylem formedlures to the awareness of 
 
 
Panel Presentation: HabitatAuthor: Eve WalkdenInstitution: University of SouthamptonTo the author’s knowledge there are onlystudied the structural design of the treetheory to its design. They found that bramaterial, compared with a branch with festrain distribution in branch joint is achiethe branch, is not actually the defect it isFinch researched the winching of branchweaken the limb by cutting into the stemfracture. The experiments gave a mix of for the health and safety implications of t
Methodology
Looking at the Joint 
A joint in a tree is a supporting componefailure. When considering the scales at wthe tree structure can really be admired.Engineer. In order to understand the abililoading conditions; as cut internal composettings, where the moisture content varicreated which will increase the possibility
Component 
By looking at the internal area of the treuntreated wood, and also the interactionengineering tests for timber material it wiand find an effective comparison betweefrom the circular cross-section of the bravariants and failure can be found, on whiworking of a cut green section of joint, b
Global 
A base for the optimisation workings in tconditions to see how the failure mode ointernal optimisation and interaction of thprogression from the component tests wilwhich the component model can be testecreated from this global test can then bemodel can be created, which starts to inc
Live Test 
As the cut tree dries out its strength chaThe tree’s viscoelastic and optimisation pallowing for conductance of material andthereby its mode of failure in extreme weonsite winch tests conducted in order tostructure and failure mode being conductto assess the success of the models so fa
Results and Discussion
The testing stages allow for developmentnew findings. In this development each stree changes its load response at each teHaving found test models that emulate tinternational material design and sustainearly in development and be a base for f many areas of sustainable building resou
EWB-UK National Resear
four other published Scientists to have worked in thiranch, seeing the tree as a cantilever and incorporatiches with lots of short secondary branches reduced twer but longer secondary branches. Müller
et al 
showed by its natural optimisation. This conversely showconsidered as with the grading standards formed thrs which were in danger of shedding in public areas. Tin order to get the winch pull off the branch to produesults depending on the conditions of the tree, and ahese tests.t of a large cantilever that manages to respond to ex
 
hich the branch reaches out with its limited ‘fixed’ enThe design of this area is of intrigue to this work, anity of this natural phenomenon, the tree joint will be lnents, as a whole joint cut from the tree, and as a livants may change the strength. In this way a base foron better designs in structural materials. joint, it will be possible to access the interaction of rof ring spacing as the branch attaches to the primaryill be possible to evaluate the components by knowngreen and structural green wood. In addition with tch and stem, an idea of the interaction of reaction wh a model can be formed. Thus the model will showsed on experimental evidence which follows standare whole joint section can be gained by loading up acurs. In addition the load capacity of the joint can ste joint can only really be understood in a whole sectill mean that the joint will be tested in laboratory contd against further experimental evidence. The componcompared to see how interactions differ and remain slude the strength characteristics.ges, this means that the natural inbuilt properties of roperties will mean it will react to loading as a wholeload distribution. In order to assess the reaction to sather conditions, live tests will be conducted. These tccess the living strength of the joint, with a forensiced after testing. This test will be compared with the cr created.of an experimentally proved model that can be adapage will generate its own model that will form a basist.e principles of tree design, the findings will be used tbility initiatives. The limitations on these tests will mture international test works. However, the works wilces and urban cooling.
h & Education Conference 2011
‘Our Global Future’ 
4
th
March 2011
59area. Cannell and Morganng engineers bendinghe need for supported the homogeneity of d that the notch created byough the timber industry.his involved the need toce a natural lookinglso highlighted awarenesstreme loads to preventspan, the achievements of must be of intrigue to theooked at in three differenting structure within itsfurther work can beeaction wood within greengrowth. Using standardnd practiced procedurese samples being takenood and seasonal ringan idea of the internalexperimental practises.ample in laboratoryrt to be evaluated. Then sample of joint. Thisrolled conditions, froment model and the modelimilar. Thus a refinedthe living tree are changed.organism and structureort term loading, andests will be in the form of analysis of the internalomponent and global tests,ed and changed to suitof understanding how theo find better methods of ean these works will bell provide possibilities for

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