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Quartiles Deciles and Percentiles

Quartiles Deciles and Percentiles

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Published by SANIUL ISLAM
Quartiles Deciles and Percentiles
Quartiles Deciles and Percentiles

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Published by: SANIUL ISLAM on Mar 26, 2013
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IBA, JUWMBA Program 2 (continued)Course Instructor: Dr Swapan Kumar Dhar Quartiles, Deciles and Percentiles
Median divides the set of observations into two equal parts so that the number of observations less thanmedian is equal to the number of observations greater than median. Similarly we can divide the set of observations into a fixed number of equal parts. These are called partitions. The values that divide the setof observations into different partitions are called partition values or 
Quantiles
. Some of the importantpartition values are Quartiles, Deciles and Percentiles.
Quartiles
: There are three Quartiles,
,,,
321
QQQ
which divide the set of observations into four equalparts. They are named as first quartile
)(
1
Q
, second quartile
)(
2
Q
and third quartile
).(
3
Q
Of them
2
Q
is the median and
1
Q
and
3
Q
are also called lower and upper quartiles respectively.
(a)From Ungrouped Data:
i
Q
=
Value of the
14
iN th
+
term if N is odd, i = 1, 2, 3.= Value of 
112 4 4
iN ith th
 + +  
observation, if N is even, i= 1, 2, 3.
Example 1:
Find the quartiles of the following numbers. 107218453256642760
Solution:
Arranging the numbers in ascending order of magnitude, we get101827324556606472Here,
9
,
n
=
1 9 12.54 4
n
+ += =
(2 1) 18 1 (3 1) 27 14.75, 74 4 4 4
n n
+ + + += = = =
1
st
quartile
)(
1
Q
= value of 2.5
th
term
2 32
nd term rd term
+=
 
18 27 4522.52 2
+= = =
.
2
Q
=
Value of 4.75 th term = 45.
3
Q
=
Value of 7
th
term = 60.
Example 2:
Consider the temperature (in Celsius) of several days during a summer season.33333232.5323231.531.530.83130.830.530.829.52930 Find (i) maximum temperature of the first 25% lowest temperature days (ii) minimum temperature of thelast 25% high temperature days (iii) median temperature.
Solution
: Arranging the numbers in ascending order of magnitude, we get2929.53030.530.830.830.83131.531.532323232.53333(i) Maximum temperature of the first 25% lowest temperature days is given by first quartile
1
Q
, where
1
Q
= Value of 
112 4 4
 N th th
 + +  
observation as n = 16 and it is even.= Value of 
[ ]
14 52
th th
+
observation =
[ ]
130.5 30.82
+
=
0
30.65
.(ii) Minimum temperature of the last 25% highest temperature days is given by third quartile
3
Q
, where
1
 
3
Q
= Value of 
1 3 312 4 4
 N th th
 + +  
observation as n = 16 and it is even.= Value of 
[ ]
112 132
th th
+
observation =
[ ]
132 322
+
=
0
32
.(iii) Median temperature isMedian =
2
Q
= Value of 
1 2 212 4 4
 N th th
 + +  
observation as n = 16 and it is even.= Value of 
[ ]
18 92
th th
+
observation =
[ ]
131 31.52
+
=
0
31.25
.
(b) From Grouped Data or from Frequency Table
:
Example 3:
Find the quartiles of the following distribution.Height (in inches)585960616263646566Number of Students 152032353322201008 Also find the median
Solution:
Height (in inches)Frequency(f)Cumulative frequency58151559203560326761351026233135632215764201776510187668195
1
Q
= Size of 
14
 N 
+   
th item = Size of 
195 14
+   
th item = 49 th item = 60.
2
Q
= Size of 2
14
 N 
+   
th item = Size of 2
195 14
+   
th item = 98 th item = 61.
3
Q
= Size of 3
14
 N 
+   
th item = Size of 3
195 14
+   
th item = 147 th item = 63.Since
2
Q
= Median, we can write median = 61.
From Frequency distribution with class interval
:The formula to calculate quartiles is
1
4
im
iN  F Q L  f  
= + ×
.Where
 L
= Lower limit of the quartile class
 N 
= Total frequency
1
 F 
= Cumulative frequency for the class just above the quartile class
m
 f  
=
Frequency of the quartile class.
= Class interval of the quartile class.
i
= 1, 2, 3.The quartile class is that class for which cumulative frequency
4
iN 
.
2
 
Example 4
: The following distribution represents the monthly salary of a group of industrial workers:Salary (in Taka)Number of Workers (f)Cumulative Frequency< 150018181500 170042601700 1900651251900 21001502752100 2300703452300 2500453902500 >20410(i) Find the maximum salary of the first 25% low paid workers.(ii) Find maximum salary of the last 25% high paid workers.(iii) Represent the above two values by an appropriate diagram.(iv) How many workers have income less than 2100 Taka?
Solution
: (i) The maximum salary of the first 25% low paid workers is calculated by
1
Q
. For calculating1
st
quartile it is necessary to obtain the quartile class. Since
4
 N 
=102.5 lies in the class 1700 – 1900(Cumulative frequency
102.5), the quartile class is 1700 1900. So, it is given by
11
410604 41700 200 1830.7765
m
 N  F Q L  f  
= + × = + × =
Taka.(ii) The minimum salary of the last 25% high paid workers is calculated by
3
Q
and it is given by
13
3307.5 27542100 200 2192.8670
= + × = + × =
m
 N  F Q L  f  
Taka. Here
3
Q
lies in the class 2100 –2300, because cumulative frequency of the class is greater than or equal to
34
 N 
= 307.5.(iii) The two values of 
1
Q
and
3
Q
can be well represented by Box – and – Whisker plot as given below:The value of 
2
Q
is
12
2205 12541900 200 2006.67150
= + × = + × =
m
 N  F Q L  f  
Taka.
1
Q
 
2
Q
 
3
Q
 <1500 1700 1900 2100 2300 2500>
Figure: Box – and – Whisker plot to represent the values of quartiles
.(iv) From the cumulative frequency it is observed that 275 workers’ salary is less than 2100 Taka.
Example 5
: Marks obtained by 25 students are given below:Marks obtained0-1010-2020-3030-4040-50Number of students34864
3

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