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Assignment Problem

# Assignment Problem

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this are notes for QMB of semester 6 bms
i got these from some website of got them from my friend.
this are notes for QMB of semester 6 bms
i got these from some website of got them from my friend.

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07/07/2013

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Prof Vinay Pandit
ASSIGNMENT AND TRANSPORTATION THEORY1) What is an Assignment Problem?
The assignment problem can be stated as a problem where different jobs are to beassigned to different machines on the basis of the cost of doing these jobs. Theobjective is to minimize the total cost of doing all the jobs on different machines
The peculiarity of the assignment problem is only one job can be assigned to onemachine i.e., it should be a one-to-one assignment
The cost data is given as a matrix where rows correspond to jobs and columns tomachines and there are as many rows as the number of columns i.e. the number of  jobs and number of Machines should be equal
This can be compared to demand equals supply condition in a balancedtransportation problem. In the optimal solution there should be only oneassignment in each row and columns of the given assignment table. one canobserve various situations where assignment problem can exist
e.g.,
assignmentof workers to jobs like assigning clerks to different counters in a bank or salesmanto different areas for sales, different contracts to bidders.
Assignment becomes a problem because each job requires different skills and thecapacity or efficiency of each person with respect to these jobs can be different.This gives rise to cost differences. If each person is able to do all jobs equallyefficiently then all costs will be the same and each job can be assigned to any person.
When assignment is a problem it becomes a typical optimization problem it cantherefore be compared to a transportation problem. The cost elements are givenand is a square matrix and requirement at each destination is one and availabilityat each origin is also one.
OR MMS

Prof Vinay Pandit
ASSIGNMENT AND TRANSPORTATION THEORY
In addition we have number of origins which equals the number of destinationshence the total demand equals total supply . There is only one assignment in eachrow and each column .However If we compare this to a transportation problem wefind that a general transportation problem does not have the above mentionedlimitations. These limitations are peculiar to assignment problem only.
2) What is a Balanced and Unbalanced Assignment Problem?A balanced assignment problem
is one where the number of rows = the number of columns (comparable to a balanced transportation problem where total demand =totalsupply)Balanced assignment problem: no of rows = no of columns
Unbalanced assignment
is one when the number of rows not equal to the number of columns and vice versa.
e.g.
The number of machines may be more than the number of  jobs or the number of jobs may be more than the number of machines.
In such a situation
we introduce dummy row/column(s) in the matrix. These rows or columns have a zero cost element. Thus we can balance the problem and then useHungarian method to find optimal assignment.Unbalanced assignment problem: no of rows not
equal to
no of columns
OR MMS

Prof Vinay Pandit
ASSIGNMENT AND TRANSPORTATION THEORY3) What is a Prohibited Assignment Problem?
A usual assignment problem presumes that all jobs can be performed byall individuals there can be a free or unrestricted assignment of jobs and individuals.
Aprohibited assignment problem occurs when a machine may not be in, a position toperform a particular
job as there be some technical difficulties in using a certainmachine for a certain job. In such cases the assignment is constrained by given facts.To solve this type problem of restriction on job assignment we will haveto assign a very high cost M This ensures that restricted or impractical combination doesnot enter the optimal assignment plan which aims at minimization of total cost.
4)What are the methods to solve an Assignment Problem (Hungarian Method)?There are different methods of solving an assignment problem:

OR MMS

DIFFERENT METHODS OF ASSIGNMENTPROBLEMHungarian method

Simplex Method

TransportationProblem

CompleteEnumeration