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MArketing research notes chapter7

MArketing research notes chapter7

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Published by Manoj Patel
this are the notes for marketing research - a subject for TYBMS, mumbai university.
this are the notes for marketing research - a subject for TYBMS, mumbai university.

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categoriesTypes, School Work
Published by: Manoj Patel on Mar 14, 2009
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04/01/2011

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© Copy Right: Rai University
11.556 37
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Students, before we start our topic for the day, I would like to giveyou a brief recap from our last class. We had centered our discussionon the various steps involved in a research process. These wereidentified as:
Problem Definition:It stated that before we actually initiatethe investigation, we should be clear about the problem weare facing.
Research Design:As I had also highlighted in the last class,this provides the blueprint of investigation. It gives you abroad idea about how to proceed further in gettinginformation regarding the relevant variables from the unitsunder consideration
Data Collection:Once your design is developed you, as aresearcher, would be required to start collecting informationfrom the units under study. However, bear in mind thatnone of the variables should be over or under stated.
Data Analysis:Your next step would be to process the data.Here, you would try to investigate how various unitsrespond to the variable or characteristics under study.Such data analysis that you may carry out could be:
Uni-variate
Bi-variate
Multi-variate
Interpretation
Literally speaking, interpretation is the ‘so what’ of a researchprocess. If you carry out a research or an investigation which is notused in influencing any action anywhere, then it is a sheer waste of time and resources. Therefore, your research results must beconsistent with the decisions that you have to make.This is not the end of your task. It is equally important that youshould be able to communicate these findings andrecommendations in an understandable and concise manner tothe decision makers. Your report should clearly highlight that therecommendation or suggestion is justified.From this we derive the essence of our discussion today-
‘Writing the Research Report’
Being asked to write a report can fill people with horror! However,writing reports correctly is an essential skill that you will need notonly today as a student, but also even tomorrow as a buddingmanager.I am sure you would agree, when I say that report writing iscommon to both academic and managerial situations.In academics, you would be required to prepare reports to facilitatecomprehensive and application oriented learning. Such reports of yours would be called term papers, project reports, theses anddissertations depending upon the nature of the report, the timeand effort expected out of you as a student and your curriculumdesign.Further, if you were a researcher, you would put out your initialfindings in a research report, paper or monograph, which wouldlater be condensed into an article or expanded into a series of articles or a book When you join the corporate world tomorrow, you would realizethat report writing there forms the basis for decision-making.Such reports would be expected to be brief but comprehensiveand clearly reflect your thinking as the manager, the managementcommittee, or the consulting group that has been given the termsof reference for fact finding or decision making.We will start our lesson today with a brief classification of thevarious types of reports
Categories of Reports
Can any of you think of various forms a report might take?No! Never mind. Let me explain it you.Broadly, any report would fall into one of the following threemajor categories:1.Information Oriented2.Decision Oriented3.Research OrientedAs these names suggest, it is the substance and focus of thecontent that determines the category. However, a report that youmake may contain characteristics of more than just one category
Information Reports
They are the first step to understanding the existing situation (forinstance-business, economic, technological, labour market orresearch scenario) or what has been discussed or decided (minutesof a meeting). They, you should remember, form the foundationof subsequent decision reports and research reports.In describing any person, object, situation or concept, the followingseven questions will help you to convey a comprehensive picture
 Subject / ObjectAction Reason
Who? OrWhom?What? When?Where? How?Why?
LESSON 7:WRITING THE RESEARCH
 
© Copy Right: Rai University
38 11.556
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Therefore, you can check the comprehensiveness of an informationor descriptive report by iteratively asking:Who Does What to Whom?When, Where, Howand WHY?
Decision Reports
As you would well be able to make out from the name itself,decision reports adopt the problem solving approach. Such reportsthat you make have to follow the below mentioned steps:
Identifying the problem:Problem is the beginning and the endof decision-making. If you start with a wrong problem, a wronghypothesis or a wrong assumption, you will only end up solvinga non-existing problem or might even create a new problem.Therefore you should carefully define the problem, keeping inmind each of the following elements
What is the situation, and what should it be?
What are the symptoms and what are the causes?
What is the central issue and what are the subordinateissues?
What are the decision areas – short medium and long term?
Constructing the Criteria:In order to achieve your endobjective of bringing the existing situation to what it shouldbe, you would require yardsticks to evaluate options. Criterialink the ‘problem definition’ with option generation andevaluation’. In constructing the criteria, your knowledge of SWOT analysis could be very useful.
Generating and Evaluating the Options: In generating optionsit is your creativity that stands to test.
Sometimes the options may be obvious, but youshould look beyond the obvious.
Once a set of options has been generated, you shouldshort-list them and rank them by priority or theirprobability of meeting your end objectives.
As the decision maker, you should then evaluate thesame against the criteria and the possible implicationsin implementation. However, all this while, youshould not lose track of the main objective of whatthe situation should be.
Your next job is to present the evaluation. Make surethat it is structured by criteria or options dependingupon which structure is easy to understand.
Making a Decision:Your recommendations would, but naturally,flow out of the evaluation of the options, provided that yourthinking process so far has been logical. Make sure that thedecision is an adequate response to the problem
Drawing up an Action Plan:Action steps and theirconsequences should be visualized to avoid your beingcaught unaware. Be clear of WHO does WHAT, WHEN,WHERE and HOW for even the best analysis can go wasteif attention is not paid to the action plan
Working out a contingency plan:Managers thrive onoptimism in getting things done. Yet, if something can gowrong, it is likely to go wrong. You should therefore beready with parachutes to bail you out. Your contingency planmust emerge from the action plan you have already prepared.There is need to think of how to achieve the second bestobjective if the first one is not feasible.
Conclusion: A good decision report should not only bestructured sequentially but also reflect comprehensively youriterative thinking process as the decision maker.
 
© Copy Right: Rai University
11.556 39
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Reports
As you would all know, research reports contribute to the growthof subject literature. They pave the way for new information,significant hypotheses and innovative and rigorous methods of research and measurement. Students, while preparing them, youshould broadly follow the following pattern:
Undertake a Literature Survey to find gaps in knowledge
Next, you should clearly identify the nature and scope of study, hypothesis to be tested, and significance and utility of the study
Methodology for collecting data, conducting the experiment,and analyzing the data is what should follow.
Then, lay out the description and analysis of the experimentand data
Try to identify your findings after that
Come to a conclusion
Draw up your recommendations
Plug in suggestions for further research
End your survey with back-up evidence and data
Steps of Report Writing
Preparing the Draft
Preparation of reports is time consuming and expensive. Therefore,you, while writing your report should ensure that they are verysharply focused in purpose, content and readership. To controlthe final outcome of your product – whether it is a research report,committee/consulting/administrative report or a student report– I advise that you precede it with a proposal/draft and its acceptanceor modification and periodic interim reports and their acceptanceor modification by your sponsor.
We can split the writing process into stages
Writing the First Draft
 
Writing the First DraftGetting in the Mood
 
Getting in the MoodRevising, Revising, Revising
 
Revising, Revising, RevisingFinishing
 
Finishing
Your proposal should provide information on the following items:
Descriptive title of your study
Your name as the author and your background
Nature of your Study
Problem to be examined
Need for the study
Background information available
Scope of study
To whom will it be useful
Hypothesis, if any, to be tested
Data
Sources
Collection procedure
Methodology for analysis
Equipment and facilities required
Schedule-target dates for completing
Library research
Primary research
Data analysis
Outline of the report
First draft
Final draft
Likely product or tentative outline
Bibliography
Reviewing the Draft
To err is human. Therefore after you have prepared your draftreport, it should be thoroughly reviewed and edited before thefinal report is submitted. Let us now try to make a checklist thatwill help you in reviewing the draft
Your purpose as the author?
Reader’s profile?
Content?
Language and tone?
Length?

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