Chapter 6: Primary and Secondary Data Sources
These are data that were developed for some purpose other thanfor helping to solve the problem at hand. The data that are still needed after thatsearch is completed will have to be developed specifically for the research projectand are known as primary
The secondary data that are available are relatively quick and inexpensive to obtain,especially now that computerized bibliographic search services and databases areavailable. The various sources of the secondary data and how they can be obtainedand used are described ahead.Most secondary data are generated by specialized firms and are sold to marketersto help them deal with a category of problems. Nielsen’s television ratings, whichmarketers use in making advertising decisions, is the best-known example. Many of these services, broadly categorized as audits, commercial surveys, and panels,allow some degree of customization and thus fall between secondary and primarydata. These sources are treated in detail ahead.An important source of primary data is survey
The various types of surveys (personal, mail, computer, and telephone), are described ahead.Experiments are another important source of data for marketing research projects.The nature of experimentation, the types of experimental designs, and the uses andlimitations of this method of obtaining data are also explained ahead. Experimentsare conducted in either a laboratory setting (most advertising copy pretests) or in afield setting (test marketing). Electronic and computer technologies haverevolutionized both these environments, which are described later.
In April 1991, Buick and its advertising agency, McMann-Erickson Worldwide,launched its new Roadmaster station wagon with a revolutionary new advertisingapproach. A major component of the advertising for Roadster is a print campaignwith ads appearing in
Time, Newsweek, U.S.
News. & World
Report, People, SportsIllustrated, Entertainment Weekly,
and Money. However, not all subscribers will seethese ads. In fact, only 4,940 of the more than 40,000 ZIP codes in the UnitedStates will receive the ads. Subscribers is these ZIP codes
not only have achance to see the ads, their magazines' will come with a personal addressed cardinviting them to send for more information on the Roadmaster.The target households, which are located mainly in affluent suburbs in the Northeastand Midwest, represent less than 20 percent of US households. However, thesehouseholds buy over 50 percent of all large Station wagons. Buick was able toselect the appropriate ZIP codes by using McMann-Erickson McMapping database.McMapping is based on data from several syndicated sources as well as the U.S.Census. It describes ZIP codes (and larger areas) in terms of standarddemographics, values, primary lifestyle and media use. It works by matching thecharacteristics of the firm's target market with the characteristics of ZIP coderesidents.