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Research Methods

Research Methods

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Published by manojpatel51
these are the marketing research notes i got from my friend
these are the marketing research notes i got from my friend

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Published by: manojpatel51 on Mar 14, 2009
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09/27/2010

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Chapter 4
: Research Methods
Chapter 4
Research Methods
Chapter nos.TopicsPage nos.4.Research Methods
Observations
Survey Method
Experimentation
Secondary Data02050811
OBSERVATION
Definition 
 
Chapter 4
: Research Methods
It is the process of recognizing people, objects and occurrences rather thanasking for information.
Instead of asking consumers what brand they buy the researchers arrange toobserve what products are brought.
E.g. a large food retailer tested a new slot-type shelf arrangement for cannedfoods by observing shoppers as they used the new shelves.
Advantages of observation method
1.When the researcher observes and records events, it is not necessary to relyon the willingness and ability of respondents to report accurately.2.The biasing effects of interviewers or their phrasing of the questions is either eliminated or reduced.3.Data collection by observation is more objective and hence more accurate.
Disadvantages of observation method
1.Researchers have recognized the merits of observations opposed toquestioning, yet the vast majority of researchers continue to rely on the use of a questionnaire.2.The most limiting factor in the use of observation is the inability to observethings such as attitudes, motivation, etc.3.Events of more than short-term duration such as a family’s use of leisure timeand personal activities such as brushing of teeth are better discussed withquestionnaires.4.In some observational studies it is impractical to keep the respondent fromknowing that they are being observed. This results in a biasing effect.5.Cost is another major disadvantage.E.g. To observe the customers who come in to buy canned milk, an observer hasto wait for the customers to come in and buy the milk. The unproductive time isan increased cost.
METHODS OF OBSERVATION
Observational studies can be classified on five bases:1.Whether the situation in which the observation is made is natural or contrived2.Whether the observation is obtrusive or unobtrusive.3.Whether the observation is structured or unstructured4.Whether the factor of interest is observed directly or indirectly5.Whether observers or mechanical means makes observations.
 
Chapter 4
: Research Methods
Direct observations
When an observer is stationed in a grocery store to note how manydifferent brands of canned soup each shopper picks up beforeselecting one, there is unobtrusive, direct observation in a naturalsituation.
If a camera is positioned to record shopping actions, observation is bymechanical means
If the observer counts the specific cans picked up, the observation isstructured.
If the observer has to go about observing how shoppers go aboutselecting a brand of soup, the situation is unstructured.
Structured direct observation
It is used when the problem at hand has been formulated precisely enoughto enable researchers to define specifically the observations to be made
E.g. Observers in a supermarket might note the number of soup canspicked up by each customer. A form can easily be printed for simplerecordings of such observations.
Not all observations are as simple as the above but experiments haveshown that even observers with a different viewpoint on a given questiontend to make similar observations under structured conditions.
Unstructured, direct observation
Observers are placed in situations and observe whatever they deemsignificant.
E.g. In an effort to find ways of improving the service of a store, observersmay mingle with customers in the store and look for activities that suggestservice problems. No one can observe everything that is going on, hencethe observer must select certain things which he can make a note of.Customers standing at a counter with annoyed faces may be observed asirritated because of the service or lack of it.
Contrived observation
When researchers rely on natural direct observation it results in a lot of wasted time while they wait for the desired events to take place. To reducethis, it may be more desirable to contrive situations so that observationsmay be made more efficiently.

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