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Anti Fungal Drug

Anti Fungal Drug

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Published by mohamed gad

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Published by: mohamed gad on Mar 14, 2009
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Antifungal drug
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Anti fungal drugs) Jump to:navigation, search An
antifungal drug
ismedicationused to treatfungal infectionssuch asathlete's foot, ringworm, candidiasis  (thrush), serious systemic infections such as cryptococcal meningitis, and others. Such drugs are usually obtained by a doctor's prescription or purchasedover-the-counter .
[edit] List of antifungal drugs
Antifungals work by exploiting differences between mammalian and fungal cells to kill off the fungal organismwithout dangerous effects on the host. Unlike bacteria,both fungiand humans areeukaryotes.Thus fungal and humancellsare similar at the molecular level. This means it is more difficult to find a weakness in fungi to attack that does not also exist in human cells - so, if you attack the fungus, you may also attack the human cells the funguslives on. Consequently, there are often side-effectsto some of these drugs. Some of these side-effects can be life- threatening if not used properly.There are several classes of antifungal drugs.
[edit] Polyene antifungals
A polyene is a molecule with multiple conjugated double bonds. A polyene antifungal is a macrocyclic polyene witha heavily hydroxylated region on the ring opposite the conjugated system. This makes polyene antifungalsamphiphilic. The polyene antimycotics  bind withsterols in the fungalcell membrane, principallyergosterol. This changes the transition temperature (Tg) of the cell membrane, thereby placing the membrane in a less fluid, morecrystalline state. As a result, the cell's contents leak out (usually the hydrophilic contents) and the cell dies. Animalcells contain cholesterolinstead of ergosterol and so they are much less susceptible. (Note: as a polyene's hydrophobic chain is shortened, its sterol binding activity is increased. Therefore, further reduction of thehydrophobic chain may result in it binding to cholesterol, making it toxic to animals.)
 Natamycin-- 33 Carbons , binds well to ergosterol.
Filipin-- 35 Carbons, binds to cholesterol (toxic).
[edit] Imidazole and Triazole antifungals
Theimidazole and triazoleare synthetic antifungal drugs that inhibit theenzyme cytochrome P450 14α-demethylase. This enzyme convertslanosterolto ergosterol, and is required in fungal cell membrane synthesis. These drugs also block steroidsynthesis in humans.
[edit] Imidazoles:
Miconazole- (Miconazole nitrate).
Clotrimazole- marketed as Lotrimin or Lotrimin AF (and Canesten in the UK).
Sertaconazole- marketed as Ertaczo in North America.
TioconazoleThe triazoles are newer, and are less toxic
and more effective
[edit] Triazoles:
[edit] Allylamines
Allylaminesinhibit theenzyme squalene epoxidase, another enzyme required for ergosterol synthesis:
Terbinafine- marketed as "Lamisil" in North America, Australia, the UK, Germany and the Netherlands.
 Naftifine- marketed as "Naftin" in North America.
Butenafine- marketed as Lotrimin Ultra.
[edit] Echinocandins
Echinocandinsinhibit the synthesis of glucanin thecell wall, probably via theenzyme 1,3-β glucan synthase:
[edit] Others
Benzoic acid- has antifugal properties but must be combined with akeratolyticagent such as inWhitfield's Ointment
Ciclopirox- (ciclopirox olamine) a fungicidal, It is most useful againstTinea versicolour  
Tolnaftate- fungicidal, marketed as Tinactin, Desenex, Aftate, as well as other names.
Undecylenic acid-organic unsaturated fatty acidderived from natural castor oil, fungistatic as well as anti-  bacterial and anti-viral.
Flucytosine,or 5-fluorocytosine, is anantimetabolite.
Griseofulvin- binds to polymerized microtubulesand inhibits fungalmitosis.
Haloprogin- discontinued due to the emergence of more modern antifungals with fewer side effects 
[edit] Alternatives
Allicin-- Created from crushing garlic.
Tea tree oil-- ISO 4730 ("Oil of Melaleuca, Terpinen-4-ol type").
Iodine-- Lugols Solution
Coconut Oil-- medium chain triglycerides in the oil have antifungal activities.
Zinc- zinc dietary supplements or natural food sources, including pumpkin seedsandchick peas.
Selenium- selenium dietary supplements or natural food sources, particularlyBrazil nuts.
[edit] Anti-Dandruff shampoos
Antifungal drugs are often found in Anti-dandruff  shampoos,the antifungal drugs inhibit the yeast,Malassezia furfur  (formerly known as Pityrosporum ovale) which encourageseborrhoeic dermatitisandTinea versicolor .
Active ingredientExample of productComments
 (baking soda)Arm & Hammer Ketoconazole
  Nizoral, or FungoralThere is a claim that Nizoral shampoo has hair loss benefits but Nizoral Shampoo does not have FDAapproval as a hair loss remedy
.Ciclopirox olamineLoproxShow similar efficacy toketoconazolewith a relativeincrease in subjective symptom relief due to itsinherent anti-inflammatory properties
.Piroctone olamine (Octopirox)
 Nivea Complete Control
a replacement for the commonly used compound zinc pyrithione

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