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Design of Circular Liquid or Gas Pipes

Design of Circular Liquid or Gas Pipes

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Published by: sereuty on Mar 14, 2009
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08/06/2010

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Design of Circular Liquid or Gas Pipes
Calculation uses Darcy-Weisbach frictionloss equation. Friction factor found usingColebrook equation which simulates theMoody Diagram. Turbulent or laminar flow.
LMNO Engineering home page LMNO@LMNOeng.com  phone: (740) 592-1890 (USA)
to enable "Calculate" button.
Your browser does not support Java, or Java is disabled in your browser. Calculationshould be here.
Introduction
Our calculation is based on the steady state incompressible energy equation utilizing Darcy-Weisbach friction losses as well as minor losses. The calculation can compute flowrate, velocity, pipe diameter, elevation difference, pressure difference, pipe length, minor loss coefficient, and pump head (total dynamic head). The density and viscosity of a variety of liquids and gases arecoded into the program, but you can alternatively select "User defined fluid" and enter thedensity and viscosity for fluids not listed. Though some industries use the term "fluid" whenreferring to liquids, we use it to mean either liquids or gases. The calculation allows you to selectfrom a variety of piping scenaris which are discussed below.
Comments on gas flow
As mentioned above, the equations that our calculation is based upon are for incompressibleflow. The incompressible flow assumption is valid for liquids. It is also valid for gases if the pressure drop is less than 40% of the upstream pressure. Crane (1988, p. 3-3) states that if the pressure drop is less than 10% of the upstream gage pressure (gage pressure is pressure relativeto atmospheric pressure) and an incompressible model is used, then the gas density should be based on either the upstream or the downstream conditions. If the pressure drop is between 10%and 40% of the upstream gage pressure, then the density should be based on the average of theupstream and downstream conditions. If the pressure drop exceeds 40% of the upstream gage pressure, then a compressible flow model, like theWeymouth, Panhandle A, or Panhandle Bshould be used.
Piping Scenarios
Since boundary conditions affect the flow characteristics, our calculation allows you to selectwhether your locations 1 and 2 are within pipes, at the surface of open reservoirs, or in pressurized mains (same as pressurized tank). If there is no pump between locations 1 and 2, thenenter the pump head (H
 p
) as 0.
 
Steady State Energy Equation
Back to Pipe Design Calculation ReferencesThe first equation shown is the steady state energy equation for incompressible flow. The leftside of the equation contains what we call the driving heads. These heads include heads due to a pump (if present), elevation, pressure, and velocity. The terms on the right side are friction lossand minor losses. Friction losses are computed using the Darcy Weisbach friction lossequation. The friction factor for turbulent flow is found using the Colebrook equation whichrepresents the Moody diagram. f is the Moody friction factor. The equations are well-accepted inthe field of fluid mechanics and can be found in many references such as Cimbala and Cengel(2008), Munson et al. (1998), and Streeter et al. (1998).
 
The equations above are dimensionally correct which means that the units for the variables areconsistent. A consistent set of English units would be mass in slugs, weight and force in pounds,length in feet, and time in seconds. SI units are also a consistent set of units with mass inkilograms, weight and force in Newtons, length in meters, and time in seconds. Our calculationallows you to enter a variety of units and automatically performs the unit conversions.ft=foot, kg=kilogram, lb=pound, m=meter, N=Newton, s=secondA = Pipe cross-sectional area, ft
2
or m
2
.D = Pipe diameter, ft or m.Driving Head (DH) = left side of the first equation (or right side of the equation), ft or m. This isnot total dynamic head.e = Pipe surface roughness, ft or m. Select from the drop-down menu in our calculation.Additional values.f = Moody friction factor, unit-less. Do not confuse the Moody f with the Fanning friction factor.f = 4 f 
Fanning
.g = acceleration due to gravity = 32.174 ft/s
2
= 9.8066 m/s
2
.h
= Major (friction) losses, ft or m.h
m
= Minor losses, ft or m.H
 p
= Pump head (also known as Total Dynamic Head), ft or m.
m
= Sum of minor losses coefficients. Seetablebelow.log = Common (base 10) logarithm.Pump Power (computed by program) = SQH
 p
, lb-ft/s or N-m/s. Theoretical pump power. Doesnot include an inefficiency term. Note that 1 horsepower = 550 ft-lb/s.P
1
= Upstream pressure, lb/ft
2
or N/m
2
.P
2
= Downstream pressure, lb/ft
2
or N/m
2
.Re = Reynolds number, unit-less.Q = Flow rate in pipe, ft
3
/s or m
3
/s.S = weight density, lb/ft
3
or N/m
3
.V = Velocity in pipe, ft/s or m/s.V
1
= Upstream velocity, ft/s or m/s.

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