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5C Grammar Bank

5C Grammar Bank

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Published by AndreiFilip

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Published by: AndreiFilip on Mar 28, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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gerunds and infinitives
complex gerunds and infinitives
We use a passive gerund (
being done
) or a passive infinitive (
to be done
)to describe actions which are done to the subject.She loves
being told
how pretty she is.
I’m tired of 
being lied to
. I want the truth.
It’s very difficult
to get promoted
in this company.My car needs
to be serviced
.We use a perfect gerund (
having done
) or a perfect infinitive (
to have done
)if we want to emphasize that an action is completed or in the past.He thanked them for 
having helped
Having studied
one language before makes it easier to learn another.
How wonderful
to have finished
all our exams!
By the time I’m 30, I hope
to have started
a family.
Often there is no difference between using a simple gerund or infinitive
and a perfect gerund or infinitive, e.g.
He denied stealing 
having stolen the money.It was our fault. We were silly not to lock 
not to have locked the car.
gerunds and infinitives
complex gerunds and infinitives
We use the perfect infinitive after 
would like
would love
would hate
would  prefer 
, and
would rather 
to talk about an earlier action. Compare:
I would like to see the Eiffel Tower.
= when I go to Paris in the future.
I would like to have seen the Eiffel Tower.
= I was in Paris, but I didn’t see it.
 I would like
to have seen
your face when they told you you’d won the competition!
 We would rather 
have stayed
in a more central hotel, but they were all full.We use a continuous infinitive (
to be
+ verb +
) to say that an action/eventis in progress around the time we are talking about.
I’d like
to be lying
on the beach right now.She seems
to be coughing
a lot
do you think she’s OK?
gerunds and infinitives
other uses of gerunds and infinitives
We use the gerund after certain expressions with
, e.g.
It’s no use
There’s no point 
It’s not worth
, etc.
It’s no use worrying
. There’s nothing you can do.
Is there any point
him? He never has anything useful to say.
It’s no good talking
to my dad because he doesn’t listen to me.
We use the infinitive with
- after nouns formed from verbs which take the infinitive, e.g.
, etc.We had
an agreement to share
the costs.Our 
to leave
on Saturday.- after expressions with quantifiers, e.g.
too much
a lot 
 plenty of 
, etc.
You can’t visit the Louvre in a day –
too much to see
There wasn’t
snow for us
to ski

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