Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
AP Calculus Formula

AP Calculus Formula

Ratings: (0)|Views: 58 |Likes:
Published by Bernard Russell

More info:

Published by: Bernard Russell on Mar 28, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

03/28/2013

pdf

text

original

 
 
All Rights Reserved2013. 03. 28
1
AP Calculus Formulas
Chapter 1 Functions , Limit and Continuity
1.Elementary functions and its graphs(1)Power Function
y
=
 x
n
 
, (2)Exponential Function
 y
=
e
 x
, (3)Logarithmic Function
 y
=log
a
 x
.(4)Trigonometric Function
 y
=sin
 x
, cos
 x
, tan
 x
, cot
 x
, sec
 x
, csc
 x
.(5)Inverse Trigonometric Function
 y
=sin
1
 x
, cos
1
 x
, tan
1
 x
, cot
1
 x
, sec
1
 x
, csc
1
 x
.2.
 
Four Ways to Represent a Function(1)
 y
=
 f 
(
 x
) (2)parametric
 
 x
 f 
(
)
 y
g
(
)(3)ploar
=
 f 
(
θ
) (4)vector
(
)=<
 f 
(
) ,
g
(
) >3. Present the
Vertical Line Test
for curves in the plane.2. Some important limits(1)
 x x
 x
sinlim
0
(2)
 
 x x x x
 xe x
10
)1(lim) 11(lim
+==+
 (3)
01110111
lim)()(lim
b xb xb xb a xa xa xa  xQ xP
nnnnmmmm x x
++++ ++++ =
LL
=
 
 
a
m
b
n
 
(
m
 
=
 
n
)
 
 
(
m
 
>
 
n
)
 
0
 
(
m
 
<
 
n
) 
Chapter 2 Derivatives
1.(1)
a xa f  x f  ha f ha f   x ya f 
a xh x
=+==
)()( lim)()( limlim)(
00
 (2)One
side derivative
a xa f  x f  ha f ha f  a f 
a xh
=+=
++
+
)()( lim)()( lim)(
0
 
a xa f  x f  ha f ha f  a f 
a xh
=+=
)()( lim)()( lim)(
0
 
[Remark] :(1)Geometric interpretation of derivativesThetangent lineof the graph of 
 f 
(
 x
) at the point
P
= (
a
,
 f 
(
a
)) is the line through
P
whose slope isthe limit of the secant slopes as a nearby point
Q
approaches
P
. This limit is the derivative
)(
a f 
of f at
a
. The equation for the tangent line to
 f 
(
 x
) at the (
a
,
 f 
(
a
)) is then given by
 y
=
 f 
(
a
) +
)(
a f 
• (
 x
 
 
a
).(2)Physical interpretation of derivatives
 
 
All Rights Reserved2013. 03. 28
2
The derivative can also be interpreted as theinstantaneous rate of change, for example, thevelocity of a moving object at the instant
.2.TheoremIf a function
 f 
 
is
differentiable
at
 x
 
=
 
c
, then
 f 
 
is
continuous
at
 x
 
=
 
c
..[Remark]
Differentiability implies continuity, where continuity doesn’t imply differentiability.
3.Derivative formulas of basic elementary functions(1)
1
=
rx xdx
,
R. (2)
 x x
eedx
=
;
aaadx
 x x
ln
=
 (3)0,1ln
>=
 x x xdx
;0,ln1log
>=
 xa x xdx
a
;
dxduuudx
×=
1)ln(.(4)
 x xdx
cossin
=
;
 x xdx
sincos
=
;
 x xdx
2
sectan
=
;
 x xdx
2
csccot
=
;
 x x xdx
tansecsec
=
;
 x x xdx
cotcsccsc
=
;(5)
21
11sin
 x xdx
=
;
21
11cos
 x xdx
=
;
21
11tan
 x xdx
+=
;
21
11cot
 x xdx
+=
;1||1sec
21
=
 x x xdx
;1||1csc
21
=
 x x xdx
;4.Operations
(1))()())()((
 xgdx x f dx xg x f  dx
±=±
 (2))()()()())()((
 xg x f  x f  xg xg x f  dx
×+×=
 (3)
2
))(()()()()( )()(
 xg xg x f  x f  xg  xg x f dx
××=
 5.
Chain Rule
 If 
g
is differentiable at
x
and
is differentiable at
g
(
 x
), then the composite function defined by
 f 
g
 =
 f 
(
g
(
 x
)) is differentiable at
 x
and)())(())((
 xg xg f  xg f  dx
×=
.If 
 y
=
 f 
(
u
) and
u
=
g
(
 x
) are both differentiable function then
dxdududydxdy
×=
.Common forms of the Chain Rule:(1)It can combine chain rule with product rule, quotient rule,...(2)Power Rule combined with Chain Rule : if 
is any real number and
u
=
g
(
 x
) is differentiable
 
 
All Rights Reserved2013. 03. 28
3
, then :
1
)(
×=
nn
unudx
or)())(())((
1
 xg xgn xg dx
nn
××=
 Example : Evaluate the derivatives of the following using the Chain Rule1.
 y
= (
 x
3 
− 1)
100 
2.
 y
=
e
tan
 x
3.
 y
= ln(sin
 x
)6
. Implicit Differentiation
 An implicit function is defined implicitly by a relation between
 x
and
 y
. (It is not of the usual form
 y
=
 f 
(
 x
).) For an implicit function, it is not necessary to solve the equation for
 y
in terms of 
 x
tofind the derivative of 
 y
. Implicit differentiation consists of differentiating both sides of theequation with respect to
 x
and then solving the resulting equation for
dxdy y
=
.Example : Find
dxdy
using implicit differentiation1.
 x
3
+
y
3
= 3
 xy
2.sin(
 x
+
 y
)= cos
 x
 7.
Logarithmic Differentiation Steps
 (1). Take
ln(
)
of both sides of the equation and use
log
Properties to simplify(2). Differentiate implicitly with respect to
 x
 (3). Solve the resulting equation for
 y
.8.Inverse functionSuppose that)(
 x f 
> 0 or)(
 x f 
< 0 for all
 x
in an open interval I containing
c
, so that there is aninverse function
g
to
 f 
, defined on an open interval containing
 f 
(
c
) =
, with
g
(
) =
c
.Then
g
isdifferentiable at
and))((1)(1)(
g f  x f  g
==
.9.Parametric differentaition

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->