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Nutritional benefits of using Processed Animal Proteins (PAPs) in European aquafeeds

Nutritional benefits of using Processed Animal Proteins (PAPs) in European aquafeeds

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After the BSE crisis in the EU in late 2001, processed animal proteins (PAPs) were banned from utilisation in feeds for aquaculture and livestock. Some products were re-introduced in 2005 (blood products, milk products, hydrolyzed proteins, gelatin) as they did not pose any risk of transferring BSE to consumption animals. Meanwhile the bulk of processed animal proteins was used for other applications and exported to markets outside Europe.
After the BSE crisis in the EU in late 2001, processed animal proteins (PAPs) were banned from utilisation in feeds for aquaculture and livestock. Some products were re-introduced in 2005 (blood products, milk products, hydrolyzed proteins, gelatin) as they did not pose any risk of transferring BSE to consumption animals. Meanwhile the bulk of processed animal proteins was used for other applications and exported to markets outside Europe.

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Published by: International Aquafeed magazine on Mar 28, 2013
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March | April 2013Transforming aquaculture production usingoxygenation systems
International Aquafeed is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies,the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published.©Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any formor by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058
INCORPORATINGfIsh fARmING TeChNOlOGy
 
A
ftertheBSEcrisisintheEUinlate2001,processedanimalproteins(PAPs)werebannedfromutilisationinfeedsforaqua-cultureandlivestock.Someproductswerere-introducedin2005(bloodproducts,milkproducts,hydrolyzedproteins,gelatin)astheydidnotposeanyriskoftransferringBSEtoconsumptionanimals.MeanwhilethebulkofprocessedanimalproteinswasusedforotherapplicationsandexportedtomarketsoutsideEurope.
Theever-increasingcostoffishmealhascausedimportantincreasesinfishfeedprices.Itisthereforelogicalthatfishfeedproducerscontinuouslylookforalternatives,butallotherpotentialproteinsourcesarebecomingscarceandexpensive.There-introductionofPAPsintoEuropeanaquafeeds,effectiveonJune1,2013,wouldhelptheEuropeanaquacultureindustrytosolvepartoftherawmaterialproblem.
Sustainability
Itwouldalsoreduceconsiderablythecarbonfootprintofaquafeeds,sincetheseproteinsourcesarelocallyavailableandwillpartiallysubstituteimportedsoybeanmealfromtheAmericasandfishmealfromPeruandChile.ThecarbonfootprintofPAPsismuchlowerthanthefootprintofvegetablemeals(Figure1).Alsotheemissionsrelated tolanduseandlandusechange(LULUC)arehigherforvegetablemeals.Thecarbonfootprintofpoultrymealoriginatesfrom theproductionoftheby-products(basedonaallocationaccordingtoeconomicvalueofmeatandby-products),plusener-gyfortransportingtheby-productsanddryingofthematerial.Aquacultureisoftencriticisedforusingmorefishthanproducingfish(FIFO>1).There-introductionofPAPsprovidesachancetolowertheFIFOconsiderably.Apartfromsustainability,alsonutritionally,PAPsarethefirstproteinssourcestobeused toreplacefishmeal,foranumberofreasons:
High protein and amino acid content
PAPsarerichinmostessentialaminoacidsexceptmethionine.Theyareparticu-larlyhighinarginineandotherwatersolubleaminoacids(proline,glycine,andglutamicacid),whichactasattractantandpalatantinaquafeeds.
Digestible proteins
DigestibilityvariesalotbetweendifferentPAPsandisaffectedbyqualityofrawmateri-alsbeforedryinganddryingmethod.WecanobservethatgoodqualityPAPsshowdigest-ibilitylevelswhichareashighasthehighestqualityfishmeals.(Table2)
Partially soluble proteins
BothfishmealandPAPscontainimportantamountsofwatersolubleproteins,intheformofpeptidesorlongerchains.Thesewatersolubleproteinsarehighlydigestible,butalsowillimprovetheattractibilityand
 Table 1: Table of composition of feather meal, poultry meal and meat and bone meal in comparison with therequirement of gilthead sea bream, rainbow trout and salmon
Fether melPoultry melMet ndbone melSlmonidsGilthedse bremCrude protein 85 63 50 35-45 38-46 amino cids (in % of CP) arginine 7,0 6,7 6,9 3.3-5,1 5.0Histidine 0,8 1,8 1,7 1,6-1,8Isoleucine 4,9 3,5 2,8 2,0-2.3eucine 8,2 6,3 5,3 3,6-4.0 Vline 7,4 4,9 3,7 2.9-5,3ysine 2,4 5,7 5,0 4.0-5,0 5.0Phenyllnine 4,9 3,6 3,3 4,1-5,3Meth+Cyst 4,9 3,0 2,1 2,4-4,0 4.0hreonine 4,8 3,6 3,0 1,8-2,2ryptophn 0,7 0,9 0,6 0,5-1.4 0.6
Nutritional benefits of using Processed AnimalProteins (PAPs) in European aquafeeds
by Eric De Muylder1and Geert van der Velden2
14 | IntenAtIonA
AquAFeed
| March-April 2013
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