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The multifunctional dietary properties of spirulina and its use in aquaculture

The multifunctional dietary properties of spirulina and its use in aquaculture

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In commercial and high stocking density culture practices, feeding plays a significant role in fast growth and high yields. Aqua feed contains many ingredients in highly balanced nutritious components for enhancing the digestive mechanisms in fish and shrimp bodies. It leads to better body weights and health, optimum immunity and greater survival rates. Spirulina is a unique high quality natural diet with enriched optimum protein for fish and shrimp which is proven to be a suitable supplementary feed in aquaculture.
In commercial and high stocking density culture practices, feeding plays a significant role in fast growth and high yields. Aqua feed contains many ingredients in highly balanced nutritious components for enhancing the digestive mechanisms in fish and shrimp bodies. It leads to better body weights and health, optimum immunity and greater survival rates. Spirulina is a unique high quality natural diet with enriched optimum protein for fish and shrimp which is proven to be a suitable supplementary feed in aquaculture.

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Published by: International Aquafeed magazine on Mar 28, 2013
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March | April 2013The multifunctional dietary properties of spirulina and its use in aquaculture
International Aquafeed is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies,the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published.©Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any formor by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058
INCORPORATINGfIsh fARmING TeChNOlOGy
 
I
ncommercialandhighstockingdensityculturepractices,feedingplaysasignifi-cantroleinfastgrowthandhighyields.Aquafeedcontainsmanyingredientsinhighlybalancednutritiouscomponentsforenhancingthedigestivemechanismsinfishandshrimpbodies.Itleadstobetterbodyweightsandhealth,optimumimmunityandgreatersurvivalrates.Spirulinaisauniquehighqualitynaturaldietwithenrichedoptimumproteinforfishandshrimpwhichisproventobeasuitablesupplementaryfeedinaquaculture.
SpirulinaisabluegreenalgaelikeaspiraloflongthinthreadsundergenusArthrospira, thephylumOscillatoriaceae.Spirulinaiscalledbluegreenalgae(cynobacteria)becauseofpresenceofbothgreen(chlorophyll)andblue(phycocyanin)pigmentsinitscellularstructure.Thetwospecieswhicharemostimportantfor theirnutritiousvaluesareSpirulinamaximaandSpirulinaplantensis.
Nutritional food value
Theuseofspirulinaascom-plementaryfeedinvarioussec- torsofaquaculturecanresultinfastgrowthfactors,enhancedpigmentationandbetterimmunesystems.Itisconsideredasanexcellentfood,lackingtoxicityandhavingcorrectivepropertiesagainstthepathogenicmicro-organisms.Itlackscellulosecellwallsandthereforedoesnotrequireschemicalsorprocessinginordertobecomedigestible.Thedigestibilityis83–84percent.Spirulinaisregardedasarichsourceofprotein,vitamins,essentialmineral,aminoacids,EFFAlikegammaLNAandantioxidantpigmentslikecarotenoids.
Biochemical composition
Proteinandaminoacids:Spirulinacontains60-70percentproteinalongwithphenolicacids,tocopherols,carotenesandlinolenicacidsforwhichrepresentsanimportantstapleindiets.Theessentialaminoacidsarepresentaround47percentoftotalproteinweight.Thespectrumofaminoacidrepresentthatthebio-logicalvalueofproteinsinspirulinaisveryhigh.Aminoacidandbiologicalfunctionoffishandshrimp•Isoleucine:Requiredforoptimalgrowth,nitrogenequilibriuminthebody.Used tosynthesizeothernon-essentialaminoacids.•Leucine:Increasesmuscularenergylevels.•Lysine:Buildingblockofbloodantibod-iesstrengthenscirculatorysystemandmaintainsnormalgrowthofcells.•Methionine:Vitallipotropic(fatandlipidmetabolizing)aminoacidthatmaintainsliverhealth.Ananti-stressfactor.•Phenylalanine:Stimulatesmetabolicrate.•Threonine:Improvesintestinalcompe- tenceanddigestiveassimilation.•Tryptophane:IncreasesutilizationofBvitamins,improvesnervehealth.•Valine:Stimulatesmusclecoordination.Carbohydrates:Spirulinacontainsabout15-21percentcarbohydratesintheformofglucose,fructose,sucrose,rhamnose,mannose,xyloseandgalactose.Itprovidestheappro-priateandimportantfoodstuffsforaquaticcultureanimalswithpoorintestinalabsorption.Carbohydratesoccurinsufficientquantitiesofmesoinositolphosphatewhichisanexcellentsourceoforganicphosphorusandinositol.AhighmoleculatoryweightpolysaccharidearebelievedtohaveeffectonDNArepairmecha-nisms,immune-stimulatoryandimmunoregula- toryproperties.Nucleicacids:Spirulinacontains2.2-3.5percentofRNAand0.6-1percentandDNA,whichrepresentslessthan5percentoftheseacidsbasedondryweight.Essentialfattyacids:Spirulinahasahighamountofpolyunsaturatedfattyacids(PUFAs)and1.5–2.0percentoftotallipid.Spirulinaisrichin
γ
-linolenicacid(ALA),linoleicacid(LA),stearidonicacid(SDA),eicosapentaenoicacid(EPA),docosahexaenoicacid(DHA)andarachidonicacid(AA).
β
-caroteneandvitamins:Spirulinacon- tainsvitaminB1(thiamine),B2(riboflavin),B3(nicotinamide),B6(pyridoxine),B9(folicacid),B12(cyanocobalamin),vitaminC,vitaminDandvitaminE.The
β
-carotene,B-groupvitamin,vitaminE,iron,potassiumandchlo-rophyllavailableinthespirulinacanpromote themetabolismofcarbohydrate,fats,protein,alcohol,andthereproductionofskin,muscleandmucosa.Spirulinacontainslargeamountsofnatural
β
-caroteneandthis
β
-caroteneisconvertedintovitaminA.Minerals:Spirulinaisarichsourceofpotassium,andalsocontainscalcium,chromium,copper,iron,magnesium,man-ganese,phosphorus,selenium,sodium,zinc,molybdenum,chloride,germa-niumandboron.Photosyntheticpigments:Spirulinacontainsmanypigmentsincludingchlorophylla,xantho-phyll,betacarotene,echinenone,myxoxantho-phyll,zeaxanthin,canthaxanthin,diatoxanthin,3-hydroxyechinenone,beta-cryptoxanthin,oscillaxanthin,plusthephycobiliproteins,c-phy-cocyaninandallophycocyanin.Naturalpigmentenhancers:Phycocyanin
 Table 1:
Physicl propertiesGenerl nlysisComposition100%Protein60-70% appernceFine powderCrbohydrte15-25%ColourDrk blue greenFts (lipids)06-08%dour & tsteMild like weedMinerls (ash)07-13%Digestibility83-84%Moisture03-17%Prticle size64 mesh throughFibre08-10%
The multifunctional dietaryproperties of spirulina andits use in aquaculture
by Dr S V Pamulapati, chairman and managing director and Prakash Chandra Behera, technicalmanager (aqua), PVS Group, India
34 | IntenAtIonA
AquAFeed
| March-April 2013
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