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Riemann Hypothesis - WikipediaRatings:

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/13289163/Riemann-Hypothesis-Wikipedia

07/21/2010

Riemann hypothesis

The real part (red) andimaginary part (blue) of theRiemann zeta-function alongthe critical line Re(

s

) = 1/2.The first non-trivial zeros can be seen at Im(

s

) = ±14.135,±21.022 and ±25.011.

Millennium Prize Problems

P versus NPThe Hodge conjectureThe Poincaré conjecture

The Riemann hypothesis

Yang–Mills existence and mass gap Navier–Stokes existence and smoothnessThe Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In mathematics, the

Riemann hypothesis

, due to Bernhard Riemann (1859), is aconjecture about the distribution of the zeros of the Riemann zeta-function stating thatall non-trivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function have real part 1/2. The name is alsoused for some closely related analogues, such as the Riemann hypothesis for curves over finite fields.The Riemann hypothesis implies results about the distribution of prime numbers that arein some ways best possible. Along with suitable generalizations, it is considered by manymathematicians to be the most important unresolved problem in pure mathematics(Bombieri 2000). Since it was formulated, it has withstood concentrated efforts frommany outstanding mathematicians, though Selberg's proof of the Riemann hypothesis for the Selberg zeta function of a Riemann surface, Deligne's proof of the Riemannhypothesis over finite fields, and extensive computer calculations verifying that the first10 trillion zeros lie on the critical line, all suggest that it is probably true.The Riemann zeta-function ζ(

s

) is defined for all complex numbers

s

≠ 1.It has zeros at the negative even integers (i.e. at

s

= −2,

s

= −4,

s

= −6, ...).These are called the

trivial zeros

. The Riemann hypothesis is concernedwith the non-trivial zeros, and states that:The real part of any non-trivial zero of the Riemann zeta function is½.Thus the non-trivial zeros should lie on the so-called

critical line

, ½ +

it

,where

t

is a real number and

i

is the imaginary unit.The Riemann hypothesis is part of Problem 8, along with the Goldbach conjecture, in Hilbert's list of 23 unsolved problems, and is also one of the Clay Mathematics Institute Millennium Prize Problems.There are several popular books on the Riemann hypothesis, such as (Derbyshire 2003), (Rockmore 2005), (Sabbagh2003), (du Sautoy 2003). The books (Edwards 1974), (Patterson 1988) and (Borwein et al. 2008) give mathematicalintroductions, while (Titchmarsh 1986) is an advanced monograph.

Contents

1 The Riemann zeta function2 History3 Consequences of the Riemann hypothesis3.1 Distribution of prime numbers3.2 Growth of arithmetic functions3.3 Riesz criterion3.4 Weil's criterion, Li's criterion3.5 The derivative of the Riemann zeta function3.6 Lindelöf hypothesis and growth of the zeta function3.7 Large prime gap conjecture4 Generalizations and analogues of the Riemann hypothesis4.1 Dirichlet L-series and other number fields4.2 Function fields and zeta functions of varieties over finite fields4.3 Selberg zeta functions4.4 Montgomery's pair correlation conjecture5 Attempts to prove the Riemann hypothesis5.1 Operator theory

Riemann hypothesis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_hypothesis1 di 1515/03/2009 16.05

5.2 Lee-Yang theorem5.3 Turán's result5.4 Non-commutative geometry5.5 Hilbert spaces of entire functions6 Location of the zeros6.1 Number of zeros6.2 Zeros on the critical line6.3 Zero-free regions6.4 Numerical calculations6.5 Gram points7 Arguments for and against the Riemann hypothesis8 References9 External links

The Riemann zeta function

The Riemann zeta function is given for complex

s

with real part greater than 1 byEuler showed that it is given by the Euler productwhere the infinite product extends over all prime numbers

p

, and again converges for complex

s

with real part greater than1. The convergence of the Euler product shows that ζ(

s

) has no zeros in this region, as none of the factors have zeros.The Riemann hypothesis discusses zeros outside the region of convergence of this series, so it needs to be analyticallycontinued to all complex

s

. This can be done by expressing it in terms of the Dirichlet eta function as follows. If

s

has positive real part, then the zeta function satisfieswhere the series on the right converges whenever

s

has positive real part (though if the real part is less than 1 theconvergence is excruciatingly slow). Thus, this alternative series extends the zeta function from Re(

s

) > 1 to the larger domain Re(

s

) > 0.In the strip 0 < Re(

s

) < 1 the zeta function satisfies the functional equationWe may then define ζ(

s

) for all remaining complex numbers

s

by assuming that this equation holds outside the strip aswell, and letting ζ(

s

) equal the right-hand side of the equation whenever

s

has non-positive real part. If

s

is a negative eveninteger then ζ(

s

) = 0 because the factor sin(π

s

/2) vanishes; these are the

trivial zeros

of the zeta function. (If

s

is a positive even integer this argument does not apply because the zeros of sin are cancelled by the poles of the gammafunction.) The functional equation also implies that the zeta function has no zeros other than the trivial zeros with negativereal part, so all non-trivial zeros lie in the

critical strip

where

s

has real part between 0 and 1.The zeros are arranged symmetrically around the

critical line

with real part 1/2: if 1/2+β+iγ is a zero then so are1/2+β−iγ, 1/2 −β+iγ, and 1/2−β−iγ. Riemann checked that the first few zeros are all on the critical line (with β=0), andsuggested that they all are; this is the Riemann hypothesis.

Riemann hypothesis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_hypothesis2 di 1515/03/2009 16.05

"...es ist sehr wahrscheinlich, dass alleWurzeln reell sind. Hiervon wäreallerdings ein strenger Beweis zuwünschen; ich habe indess dieAufsuchung desselben nach einigenflüchtigen vergeblichen Versuchenvorläufig bei Seite gelassen, da er für den nächsten Zweck meiner Untersuchung entbehrlich schien." Thatis, "...it is very probable that all rootsare real. Of course one would wish for a stricter proof here; I have for the time being, after some fleeting vain attempts, provisionally put aside the search for this, as it appears unnecessary for thenext objective of my investigation." —Riemann's statement of the Riemannhypothesis, from (Riemann 1859). (Hewas discussing a version of the zetafunction, modified so that its roots arereal rather than on the critical line.)

History

In his 1859 paper

On the Number of Primes Less Than a Given Magnitude

Riemann found an explicit formula for the number of primes π(

x

) less than agiven number

x

. His formula was given in terms of the related functionwhich counts primes where a prime power

p

n

counts as 1/

n

of a prime. Thenumber of primes can be recovered from this function byRiemann's formula is theninvolving a sum over the non-trivial zeros ρ of the Riemann zeta function. The sum is not absolutely convergent, but may be evaluated by taking the zeros in order of the absolute value of their imaginary part. The function Li occurring in thefirst term is the (unoffset) logarithmic integral function given by the Cauchy principal value of the divergent integralThe terms Li(

x

ρ

) involving the zeros of the zeta function need some care in their definition as Li has branch points at 0and 1, and are defined (for

x

>1) by analytic continuation in the complex variable ρ in the region Re(ρ)>0. The other termsalso correspond to zeros: the dominant term Li(

x

) comes from the pole at

s

= 1, considered as a zero of multiplicity −1,and the remaining small terms come from the trivial zeros. This formula says that the zeros of the Riemann zeta functioncontrol the oscillations of primes around their "expected" positions. (For graphs of the sums of the first few terms of thisseries see Zagier 1977.) Riemann knew that the non-trivial zeros of the zeta-function were symmetrically distributed aboutthe line

s

= ½ +

it

, and he knew that all of its non-trivial zeros must lie in the range 0 ≤ Re(

s

) ≤ 1. He checked that a fewof the zeros lay on the critical line with real part 1/2 and suggested that they all do; this is the Riemann hypothesis.Hadamard (1896) and de la Vallée-Poussin (1896) independently proved that no zeros could lie on the line Re(

s

) = 1.Together with the other properties of non-trivial zeros proved by Riemann, this showed that all non-trivial zeros must lie inthe interior of the critical strip 0 < Re(

s

) < 1. This was a key step in the first proofs of the prime number theorem.

Consequences of the Riemann hypothesis

The practical uses of the Riemann hypothesis include many propositions which are known to be true under the Riemannhypothesis, and some which can be shown to be equivalent to the Riemann hypothesis.

Distribution of prime numbers

Riemann hypothesis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_hypothesis3 di 1515/03/2009 16.05

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