similarly so. A second important factor that impinges on our personality formation isthe culture in which we were raised, and our early conditioning, along with thegroups and institutions from which that culture is acquired. Thus, our families and peers, i.e. friends and associates; are important reference groups that influence our own personality characteristics.49
Furthermore, it is necessary for you to note that, since learning contributes to personality formation, the personality is not fixed because, learning itself is acontinuous process'. This does not mean, however, that personality is unstable or issubject to abrupt changes. On the contrary basic personality change is exceedinglydifficult and, also, slow to occur.
For your purpose you should think of personality as the sum total of ways in whichan individual reacts and interacts.As a concept applied to marketing, personality can be viewed as having followingdistinct characteristics:1)
Personality is used to account for differences between individuals rather thanshow how people are alike. Here again, refer to Figure 8.1. This enables us tocategorize people into groups on the basis of a single or a few traits. Thedifficulty inherent in trying to understand uniqueness has led to an emphasis onsuch measurable characteristics as intelligence, aggressiveness, and sociability.Unique combinations of individual characteristics result in variations in thoughtand behaviour and these tend to differentiate one person from another.2)
Personality is a set of response tendencies that are consistent and endure over time. Consistency means that the characteristics contributing to an individual's personality tend to carry over to a variety of situations. Consistency is essential if marketers are to predict consumer behaviour in terms of personalities. The stablenature of the underlying personality characteristics also suggests that it isunreasonable for marketing practitioners to attempt to change consumers personalities. At best they can attempt to appeal to the relevant personality traitsinherent in target groups of consumers.3)
Personality is, however, subject to change over time, in response to situations andevents in life and, also, as part of a gradual maturing process.4)
Finally, it is not possible to predict an individual
s purchase behaviour fromsingle measures of personality, we cannot expect to predict the type of furniture a person will own, merely by looking at specific personality, characteristics.
Make a list below, of six or more personality characteristics that you would sayare inherited from your parents.2)
Next, list four or more personality characteristics where you are like some of your friends.3)
Finally, list down six or more personality characteristics of your's which no person around you appears to possess.