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Dunning - Anglo-Saxon Pottery-A Symposium

Dunning - Anglo-Saxon Pottery-A Symposium

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Published by David J Brooks
Anglo-Saxon Pottery
Anglo-Saxon Pottery

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Published by: David J Brooks on Mar 29, 2013
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10/04/2013

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Anglo-SaxonPottery:ASymposium
By
G.
C.
DUNNING,
].
G.
HURST,
].
N.
L.
MYRES
and
F.
TISCHLER
The
papershereprintedarerevisedversionsofthose
read
bytheirauthorsattheConferenceonAnglo-SaxonPotterywhichtookplaceintheCastleMuseum,Norwich,from
18
to
20
April,
1958,
under
theauspicesoftheCouncilforBritishArchaeology.
The
Councilwishestorecorditsthanksto
the
NorwichMuseumsCommittee
and
their
CuratorMr.Rainbird
ClarkefortheirkindnessinmakinglocalarrangementsfortheConference
and
providinghospitality,
and
tothespeakersfortheirhelpfulcooperation.ThisSocietyisgladtobeabletopublishthis
Symposium
here,infinancialcollaborationwiththeCouncilforBritishArchaeology,
and
toannounce
that
thetextwillalsobereprintedseparatelyas
that
Council'sResearch
Report
NO.4atapriceoffiveshillings,postfree.Copiesmaybeobtainedonapplication(withappropriateremittance)totheAssistantSecretaryoftheCouncilattheCouncil'sofficesat
10
BoltonGardens,London,
S.W.5.-Editor.
1.
THE
CONTINENTALBACKGROUND
BY
F.
TISCHLER
Director,NiederrheinischesMuseum,
Duisburg,
Germany
JUST
over
a
century
ago
J.
M.Kemble
pointed
out
to
J.
Y.
Akerman
ina
now
famous
letterthe
affinity
and
resemblancebetween
urnsfound
in
the
vicinity
of
Stade
on
the
riverElbe
and
in
East
Anglia.
From
this
he
concluded
that
a
migration
of
Angles
and
Saxons
to
England
had
taken
place,
a
spark
of
intuition
whichhas
not
beenimproved
uponin
subsequent
years,
though
much
evidence
had
nowbeenaccumulated.
Little
work
was
undertakenon
thecontinent
for
fifty
years
or
moreafter
Kemble's
death
andin
theearlytwentiethcentury
A.Plettke,F.
Roeder
and
H.
Sheteligwerealmost
theonly
pioneersworking
on
Anglo-Saxonproblems
in
north-western
Europe.
During
the
second
world
war
much
of
the
unpublished
materialaccumulated
in
museumswasdestroyed,
but
the
gap
has
been
filled
duringthepast
decade
bynew
finds
ofprobablygreater
significance
fromexcavations
on
the
artificial
mounds
in
the
marshlands.
A.E.
van
Giffen
and
W.
Haarnagel
will
always
beclosely
associated
with
Anglo-Saxon
research,
because
they
integrated
a
typologically
stagnating
research
into
a
real
archaeology
of
settlements
in
which
all
aspects
of
daily
life
are
examined;
housing,domesticculture,handicrafts,
economic
structure,
trade,
and
the
struggle
withthe
sea.
Admittedly,
inso
doing,
theprehistorian
leaves
the
fields
which
were
of
imp
ortance
to
the
ancienthistorian,whosetask
wasto
observe
and
reportupon
shifts
in
thebalance
of
politicalpower.
In
return,
however,
new
and
supplementary
accentsareunexpectedly
placed
on
the
historical
sources.
ORIGINS
The
legendary
account
rests
on
two
sources:
RudolfMonkof
Fulda
and
Widukindof
Corvey.
About
the
year
865
Rudolf
refersto
theearlyperiod
of
the
 
2
MEDIEVAL
ARCHAEOLOGY
Saxonsinhis
TranslatioSanctiAlexandri.
Theyare
saidto
have
emanated
from
the
Anglesin
Britannia,
fromwhencetheysailedacross
the
sea
and
landed
at
Hadeln
in
search
of
new
homes.Accordingto
Rudolf
this
occurredwhen
Theoderic,king
of
the
Franks,
was
at
war
with
the
duke
of
Thuringia
in
531
andhad
laidwastehis
country.
When
twobattlesfailedtoyieldconspicuousresults,
Theodericsoughtthehelp
of
the
newly-landed
Saxons,whose
duke,
Hadugot,
promised
them
land
in
the
event
ofvictory.
Widukind
modified
Rudolf'snarrative
considerably,prefacinghis
report
with
areferenceto
'fama'
or
information
handed
down
verbally.Accordingto
that,
the
Saxons
were
an
offspring
of
the
Danes
and
Norsemen.
Others
made
the
Saxons
the
descendants
of
the
army
of
AlexandertheGreat.
What
was
certain,statedWidukind,
'is
that
the
Saxons
arrived
in
theircountry
byship
and
first
landed
at
a
place
called
Hadolaun'-the
areaaroundHadeln
on
the
left
bank
of
the
mouth
of
the
Elbe.
The
inhabitants
of
Hadeln
are
said
tohave
beenThuringians.
The
Saxons
landed
ina
harbour
and
later
acquiredthecountry
bytrickery
and
fighting,
slaughtering
all
the
Thuringian
principes,
duringpeace
negotiations,
with
their
knives.
They
are
believedto
havebeen
giventheir
name
from
the
use
of
theseknives,
which
werecalled
'Sachs'
in
German.Widukindthen
recounts
theconquest
of
Britannia
by
the
Anglo-Saxons,
drawing
muchon
Bedeasasource
of
information,
and
concludes
with
an
account
of
the
joint
battles
of
the
Franks
and
Saxons
under
TheodericagainsttheThuringians.
Dr.
Drogereit
thinks
thatboth
thesesources
are
of
nohistoricalvalueatall.
We
mustnote
that
Tacitus
makesno
mention
of
the
Saxons,
although
Ptolemy
describes
them
asresidingin
the
country
betweenthe
mouth
of
the
R.
Elbe
and
theneck
of
the
Cimbric
Chersonese,
adjoiningthe
Chauci.
Nowa
daysitisgenerallyassumed
that
Ptolemydrew
on
older
sources
whichcouldhave
been
collected
during
the
naval
expeditionof
the
Romans
tothe
lower
Elbe
in
A.D.
5.
It
is
not
until
268
that
theSaxonsare
mentionedagain,when,withthe
Franks,
they
ravaged
thecoasts
of
northern
France,
and
stepswere
taken
by
about
300
to
protectthe
coastalareasalong
the
English
Channel
from
their
depredations.
Around
350
the
Saxonslived
not
far
from
the
boundaryof
the
Roman
Empire,beyondthe
Rhineand
on
the
westernsea.
They
provided
Magnentius
with
troopsforhisrisingagainst
theemperorConstantius.
Weare
told
that
the
Saxonswere
plundering
Britainin
the
sixties
of
the
thirdcentury;
they
were
raidingthe
coast
of
Yorkshire
during
theperiodfrom
370to395
and
by
the
end
of
thefourthcenturythey
had
sailed
up
to
the
Orkney
islands.
In
429a
raiding
army
of
Saxons
and
Picts
weredrivenoff
by
St.
Germanusduring
hisvisittoBritain.
In
451,
Saxonsfightas
foederati
under
Aetiusin
Gaul
against
theHuns.
About
the
sixties
of
the
fifth
century,
Saxons
are
residing
on
theriver
Loire.
In
the
sixth
century
FrankswerefightingSaxons
and
Danes
in
Frisia,
which
bearswitnessto
what
appears
tobe
an
excellent
tribal
strength,
ifone
realizes
that
no
mention
has
yetbeen
made
of
the
adoentusSaxonum
in
England.
 
ANGLO-SAXON
POTTERY:
A
SYMPOSIUM
3
It
is
clearfrom
this
rather
scanty
information
that
theancientwritersbelievedtheSaxons
came
fromthe
north
and
spread
out
to
the
southand
west,by
land
and
sea,
using
both
force
and
politicaleventsto
attain
newhomelands.
In
the
course
of
such
expeditions,
they
are
bound
to
haveencounteredChauci,
Frisians
and
Franks.Thesereports
about
the
Saxons,
which
beginaroundthe
end
of
the
thirdcentury,
seem
to
contain
almostidentical
news
about
theChauci,
who
appear
on
thelower
Rhine
from
A.D.
41.
In
47
they
appear
on
theGalliccoast;
in
58
they
force
the
inhabitants
of
theEmsland
to
move
further
west,
and
in
69
and
70
theywere
fighting
the
Romans
in
the
Batavian
warunder
Civilis.
During
the
second
century,
Chauci
were
reported
tobeliving
in
the
pro
vince
of
Bclgica,
but
thereafter
no
furtherinformation
is
available.
Although
the
Chauci
were
nearer
to
the
Roman
ken
than
the
Saxons,
theirname
disappears
duringthethird
century.
Their
expansion,however,
appears
to
have
anticipated
thedirection
in
whichthe
Saxons
lateradvanced.
One
fact
emerges:
if
the
Saxons
went
beyondtheElbe,
it
could
not
havebeen
on
a
large
scale
until
c.
170,
because
the
Chauciarereported
to
be
stillresiding
south
of
theriverElbe
up
to
that
date.
On
the
basis
of
theancient
sources,
material
of
a
rather
uniform
nature
foundalongthenorth-western
coast
of
Germany
fromthe
late
iron-ageonwards
has
been
classifiedas
Chaucian,
whichmeans
that
the
regions
on
the
west
coast
of
Holstein,
commonly
assignedto
the
Saxons
according
to
Ptolemy,
would
constitute
a
group
of
the
gentesChaucorum.
However,
during
the
first
two
centuries
A.D.
thecountry
north
of
theElbe
was
continuouslysubjected
toinfluences
emanating
from
the
whole
of
the
Jutish
area.
This
'stylistic
thrust'
was
probably
backed
alsoby
tribal
movements,
since
the
significant
features
of
Saxonceramics
arc
sofirmlyestablished
in
the
system
of
types
that
an
assimilation
will
not
sufficeto
explain
how
these
elementary
conceptionswere
maintainedthroughout
the
centuries.
About
the
year
170
specificforms
can
be
plotted
in
the
western
partof
Holsteinalongthenorth-western
coast(e.g.,
Eddelaktype),
of
which
further
modifiedversions
are
found
on
sites
south
of
the
Elbe.
These
forms
must
beconsidered
direct
ancestors
of
the
typesfrom
south
of
theElbe,
withwhich
the
Chaucian
formsstillexistedsidebyside.
Thismeans
that
a
northern
group
of
the
Chauci
comes
intothesphere
of
influence
of
a
Jutish
north-south
movement,
developsits
own
forms
of
expression,
probablyabsorbingmanpower
from
outside,
and
is
eventually
pushed
on
to
thesouth.
This
move
to
the
south
and
the
migration
towards
the
west
alongknownroutes
across
the
North
Sea
is
recorded
time
and
again
by
ancient
historiansfor
bothChauci
and
Saxons.
Of
course,
the
Jutish
peninsula
was
inhabited
not
only
in
the
western
part,but
particularly
also
alongtheeast
coast.
Here,
groups
of
forms
can
be
found
which,
ina
wider
sense,
belong
to
the
Suevi
family
(withoutbeing
Lombard).
Between
Kiel
and
Flensburg,
and
further
on
towardsthe
Danish
island
ofFunen,
groups
of
ceramic
materialarefound
which
can
partly
be
called
Anglianlater.
These
are
seizedby
thesame
trend
as
the
remainder
of
the
Jutish
groups,
i.e.,they
expand
to
thesouth
and
west.
Therebythey
come
into
theSaxon
sphere
of

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