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Advanced Calculus

Advanced Calculus

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Published by Elliot Lu
Advanced calculus / Real analysis text
Advanced calculus / Real analysis text

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Published by: Elliot Lu on Mar 29, 2013
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05/08/2013

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University of Chicago“A Textbook for Advanced Calculus”
John Boller and Paul J. Sally, Jr.
 
2
 
Chapter 0
Number Systems and Cardinality
Dans la pr´esente Note, on va essayer de pr´eciser une terminologie propre `a l’´etude des ensembles abstraits.Cette ´etude a pour but principal d’´etendre les propri´et´es des ensembles lin´eaires `a des ensembles de plus en plus en´eraux, et par voie de cons´equence, de diss´equer ces propri´et´es et d’en rechercher pour chacune la eritable origine. Il en r´esulte que le fond des d´emonstrations est pour ainsi dire donn´e d’avance et que la difficult´e con-siste en grande partie a pr´eciser dans quel cadre elles viendront se placer. Adopter une terminologie, c’est donc tracer d’avance toute la th´eorie. Au fur et `a mesure du eveloppement de cette th´eorie, la terminolgie a vari´e et variera encore. Mais il n’est peut-ˆetre pas inutile d’en proposer une, adapee `a la situation pesente.M. M. Fr´echet,Extrait des Comptes rendus du Congr`es des Soci´et´es savantes en 1924.
0.1 The Integers
The set of natural numbers is the familiar collection
N
=
{
1
,
2
,
3
,...,n,...
}
. It would be possible torigorously develop the properties of the natural numbers deriving from the Peano postulates. We choose notto do this here, but we refer the interested reader to [La].We do wish to take a more formal approach towards another familiar set of numbers, namely the integers.The integers form the collection
{
0
,
1
,
1
,
2
,
2
,...
}
, which we study in elementary arithmetic. We denotethe integers by the symbol
Z
(from the German word
Zahlen 
). The operations in the integers are addition(+) and multiplication (
·
), and here are the rules. We expect that the reader is well versed in the arithmeticof the integers, but we are stating these properties explicitly for two reasons. First, these properties areused in arithmetic from the earliest grades, but are seldom justified. Second, these properties will be usedto describe other algebraic structures that we will meet later.
Rules of Arithmetic in
Z
0.1.1
(
A
1) I
a,b
Z
,
then
a
+
b
Z
.
(
M
1) I
a,b
Z
,
then
a
·
b
Z
.
Closure(
A
2) I
a,b,c
Z
,
then
a
+ (
b
+
c
) = (
a
+
b
) +
c.
(
M
2) I
a,b,c
Z
,
then
a
·
(
b
·
c
) = (
a
·
b
)
·
c.
Associativity(
A
3) I
a,b
Z
,
then
a
+
b
=
b
+
a.
(
M
3) I
a,b
Z
,
then
a
·
b
=
b
·
a.
Commutativity3

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