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Petroleum 2

Petroleum 2

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Published by: humanupgrade on Mar 16, 2009
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Petroleum: a Man’s Black Goal
INTRODUCTION
In the essay, "
 A thirst for oil…Man's search for petroleum
" by R. Williams, he states that oil has a big influence on whyand what man does. At first oil was used for liniment,medicine, and cementing walls. All over the world, there arenatural places you can recover oil and gas, such as the U.S.and Canada, but the Middle East was the biggest supplier for U.S. oil after World War II.Petroleum first uses included
 sealants, lubricants, and medicinal purposes
. A product of petroleum, kerosene, wasused as fuel for light and heating. The major current use for  petroleum came with the invention of the automobile.Petroleum is not just use for fuel; oil is also used in plastics,fertilizers, and cosmetics.Early on searching for oil and gas was more difficult, found only near natural oil and gas seeps. Later on,geochemistry helped in finding that deposits under the earth's surface. Technology is aided in the search for oil, but instead of just a guessing game it became an actual science with satellites, drilling, and saline injections,helping to uncover what is beneath the surface of the earth.Petroleum is a limited resource that the world is obsessed with using until it is gone. People are willing to dowhatever it takes to get all the oil they can, no matter what it means. R. Williams writes, "
 From a substance seeping from that earth's surface, ignored by man for centuries, to a commodity that has unprecedented implications in global relations, petroleum has truly become a man's black goal 
."
WHAT IS PETROLEUM?
Petroleum (from Greek 
 petra – rock 
and
elaion – oil 
or Latin
oleum – oil 
) is a naturally occurring,flammable liquid found in rock formations in the Earth consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights, plus other organic compounds.Petroleum, or crude oil, naturally occurring oily, bituminous liquidcomposed of various organic chemicals. It is found in largequantities below the surface of Earth and is used as a fuel and as araw material in the chemical industry. Modern industrial societiesuse it primarily to achieve a degree of mobility—on land, at sea, andin the air—that was barely imaginable less than 100 years ago. Inaddition, petroleum and its derivatives are used in the manufactureof medicines and fertilizers, foodstuffs, plastics, building materials, paints, and cloth and to generate electricity.Petroleum "
occurs in a liquid phase as crude oil ancondensate and in a gaseous phase as natural gas
" Thedevelopment of petroleum in gaseous phase is largely dependent onthe "kind of source rock from which the petroleum was formed andthe physical and thermal environment in which it exists.” Petroleum1
 
is commonly identified as the crude oil, in liquid form, which is found deep below the ground surface aroundless than 20,000 feet.Petroleum is "
 found in sedimentary basins in sedimentary rocks
" and for it to develop accumulations, it hasto meet several conditions, namely:(1) There must be a source rock, usually high in organic matter, from which petroleum can be generated;(2) There must be a mechanism for the petroleum to move, or migrate;(3) A reservoir rock with voids to hold petroleum fluids must exist;(4) The reservoir must be in a configuration to constitute a trap and be covered by a seal any kind of low- permeability or dense rock formation that prevents further migration,” The accumulations of petroleum mayalso be determined when the source and reservoir rocks occur.A petroleum geologist is a specialist who identifies possible areas where the accumulation of petroleum is.As he locates the traps, he keeps track of subsurface information and gathers data in the drilling exploratorywells. Petroleum geologists run geophysical surveys and interpret them in order to be used to "
construct maps,cross sections, and models
" to depict whether or not the subsurface has petroleum, which can be drilled for  possible exploratory wells.In fact, modern industrial civilization depends on petroleum and its products; the physical structure and wayof life of the suburban communities that surround the great cities are the result of an ample and inexpensivesupply of petroleum. In addition, the goals of developing countries—to exploit their natural resources and tosupply foodstuffs for the burgeoning populations—are based on the assumption of petroleum availability. Inrecent years, however, the worldwide availability of petroleum has steadily declined and its relative cost hasincreased. Many experts forecast that petroleum will no longer be a common commercial material by the mid-21st century.
HISTORY OF PETROLEUM
Petroleum, in some form or other, is not a substance new in the world's history.More than four thousand years ago, according to Herodotus and confirmed byDiodorus Siculus, asphalt was employed in the construction of the walls and towers of Babylon; there were oil pits near Ardericca (near Babylon), and a pitch spring onZacynthus. Great quantities of it were found on the banks of the river Issus, one of thetributaries of the Euphrates. Ancient Persian tablets indicate the medicinal and lightinguses of petroleum in the upper levels of their society.These surface deposits of crude oil have been known to humans for thousands of years. In the areas where they occurred, they were long used for limited purposes,such as caulking boats, waterproofing cloth, and fueling torches. By the time theRenaissance began in the 14th century, some surface deposits were being distilled toobtain lubricants and medicinal products, but the real exploitation of crude oil did not begin until the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution had by then brought about asearch for new fuels, and the social changes it effected had produced a need for good, cheap oil for lamps; people wished to be able to work and read after dark. Whale oil, however, was available only to the rich, tallowcandles had an unpleasant odor, and gas jets were available only in then-modern houses and apartments inmetropolitan areas.2
Statue of Diodorus Sirculus
 
Oil was exploited in the Roman province of Dacia, now in Romania, where it was called
 picula
. The earliestknown oil wells were drilled in China in 347 CE or earlier. They had depths of up to about 800 feet (240 m) andwere drilled using bits attached to bamboo poles. The oil was burned to evaporate brine and produce salt. By the10th century, extensive bamboo pipelines connected oil wells with salt springs. The ancient records of Chinaand Japan are said to contain many allusions to the use of natural gas for lighting and heating. Petroleum wasknown as burning water in Japan in the 7th century. In his book Dream Pool Essays written at 1088 CE, thePolymathic Scientist and Statesman Shen Kuo of the Song Dynasty used a 2-character Chinese word
Shi2
 
You2
,literally
 Rock Oil 
, to name the petroleum, and this word is still being used now in contemporary Chinese.The Middle East's petroleum industry was established by the 8th century, when the streets of the newlyconstructed Baghdad were paved with tar, derived from petroleum that became accessible from natural fields inthe region. In the 9th century, oil fields were exploited in the area around modern Baku, Azerbaijan, to produce
naphtha
. These fields were described by the Arab Geographer Abu al-Hasan 'Alī al-Mas'ūdī in the 10th century,and by Marco Polo in the 13th century, who described the output of those wells as hundreds of shiploads. ThePersian Alchemist Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes) distilled petroleum in the 9th century, producingchemicals such as
kerosene
in the alembic (al-ambiq), and which was mainly used for kerosene lamps. Arab andPersian chemists also distilled crude oil in order to produce flammable products for military purposes. Through Islamic Spain, distillation became available in Western Europe by the 12th century. It has also been present in Romania since the 13th century, being recorded as
 păcură 
.”The earliest mention of petroleum in the Americas occurs in Sir Walter Raleigh's account of the Trinidad Pitch Lake in 1595; whilstthirty-seven years later, the account of a visit of a Franciscan, Josephde la Roche d'Allion, to the oil springs of New York was published inSagard's Histoire du Canada. A Russian Traveller, Peter Kalm, in hiswork on America published in 1748 showed on a
map the oil springsof Pennsylvania
.In 1710 or 1711 (sources vary) the Russian-born Swiss Physician and Greek Teacher Eyrini d’Eyrinis (alsospelled as Eirini d'Eirinis) discovered
asphaltum
at Val-de-Travers, (Neuchâtel). He established a bitumen minede la Presta there in 1719 that operated until 1986.Oil sands were mined from 1745 in Merkwiller-Pechelbronn, Alsace under the direction of Louis PierreAncillon de la Sablonnière, by special appointment of Louis XV. The
 Pechelbronn oil field 
was active until1970, and was the birthplace of companies like
 Antar and Schlumberger 
. The first modern refinery was builtthere in 1857.The modern history of petroleum began in 1846 with the discovery of the process of refining kerosene fromcoal by Nova Scotian Abraham Pineo Gesner. Ignacy Łukasiewicz improved Gesner's method to develop ameans of refining kerosene from the more readily available "rock oil" ("petr-oleum") seeps in 1852 and the firstrock oil mine was built in Bóbrka, near Krosno in Galicia in the following year. In 1854, Benjamin Silliman, ascience professor at Yale University in New Haven, was the first to fractionate petroleum by
distillation
. Thesediscoveries rapidly spread around the world, and Meerzoeff built the first Russian refinery in the mature oilfields at Baku in 1861. At that time, Baku produced about 90% of the world's oil.The search for a better lamp fuel led to a great demand for “rock oil”—that is, crude oil—and variousscientists in the mid-19th century were developing processes to make commercial use of it. Thus Britishentrepreneur James Young, with others, began to manufacture various products from crude oil, but he later 3
 A pumpjack in Texas

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