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Indian Art

Indian Art

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INDIAN ART
Indian art is also an art of social, political and religious influences. It changed and evolved with the evolution of a civilization whichwas full of remarkable innovations in all areas of artistic expression. The cultural policy of the Government of India has three major objectives - preserving the cultural heritage of India, inculcating Indian art consciousness amongst Indians and promoting highstandards in creative and performing arts.Western scholars have often had difficulty understanding the complex cultural and philosophical systems that gave birth to Indian arttradition. The story of Indian art is also the story of the oldest and the most resilient culture on earth. It is seen as an amalgamation of indigenous and outside influences, yet having a unique character and distinctiveness of its own.Indian art features spirals and curvaceous lines, vines and tendrils, round-figured goddesses, circular amulets, colored gemstones,arches and domes, haloed deities, crescent moons, and the globe of the sun. Indian sculptures and paintings depict the diversity, colour and spontaneity of this country and are representations of the all-encompassing nature of Indian culture.The story of Indian art is also the story of the oldest and the most resilient culture on earth. It is seen as an amalgamation of indigenous and outside influences, yet having a unique character and distinctiveness of its own. Art is also an art of social, politicaland religious influences. It changed and evolved with the evolution of a civilization which was full of remarkable innovations in allareas of artistic expression. Indian art features spirals and curvaceous lines, vines and tendrils, round-figured goddesses, circular amulets, colored gemstones, arches and domes, haloed deities, crescentmoons, and the globe of the sun. Indian sculptures and paintings depict the diversity, colour and spontaneity of this country and are representations of the all-encompassing nature of Indianculture.The most endearing aspects of Indian art and architecture prior to colonization has been the strong impact of folk idioms and folk arton courtly art. Although folk art received little encouragement during the period of colonization, independence brought forward arenewed interest in folk paintings.The vast scope of the art of India intertwines with the cultural history, religions and philosophies which place art production and patronage in social and cultural contexts.Indian art can be classified into specific periods each reflecting particular religious, political and cultural developments.The Indian period is unique in its art, literature and architecture. Indian art is constantly challenged as it rises to the peak of achievingthe ideals of one philosophy in a visual form, then begins anew for another. This challenge and revolution in thought ovides, Indianartists with reasons for innovation and creation, and the process of visualizing abstract ideas and the culture of the land.Each religion and philosophical system provided its own nuances, vast metaphors and similes, rich associations, wild imaginations,humanization of gods and celestial beings, characterization of people, the single purpose and ideal of life to be interpreted in art.
INDIAN PAINTINGS
Indian paintings traditions go back to antiquity, as is evident from the murals of Ajanta, Ellora and other frescoes, the Buddhist palmleaf manuscripts, the Jain texts and the Deccan, Mughal and Kangra schools of miniature Indian painting.Indian Painting is an old tradition, with ancient texts outlining theories of color and and anecdotal accounts suggesting that it wascommon for households to paint their doorways or indoor rooms where guests resided.Cave paintings from Ajanta, Bagh and Sittanvasal and temple paintings testify to a love of naturalism. Indian paintings provide anaesthetic continuum that extends from the early civilization to the present day. This form of art in India is vivid and lively, refined andsophisticated and bold and vigorous at the same time.From being essentially religious in purpose in the beginning, Indian paintings have evolved over the years to become a fusion of various traditions which influenced them.At first glance, an Indian miniature painting, to the uninitiated, appears nothing more than a clutter and tangle of pastoral settings,dominated by masculine and feminine figures. Yet these scenes are not detached visions of artistic expression but provide the basis of Indian music and art forms. Most of these masterly works are visual creations of emotional and perceptive concepts that depict theragas or musical modes of Indian classical music.Miniature painters employed at various medieval courts, discovered the potential of limitless self-expression in their depiction andtoday there are 130 known sets of such miniatures.The Indian paintings have now acquired a stature of their own. They use materialsand techniques from all over the world but express Indian realities and Indian experiences.
 
The respect for tradition and the ability to transcend it at the same time is clearly evident in Indian art of today. This is the essence of what has been described as the eclecticism of the Indian contemporary expression.Starting with the Bengal school, many contemporary painters have been influenced by modern styles.Indian frescoThe Chola fresco paintings were discovered in 1931 within the circumambulatory passage of the Brihadisvara Temple in India and arethe first Chola specimens discovered.Researchers have discovered the technique used in these frescos. A smooth batter of limestone mixture is applied over the stones,which took two to three days to set. Within that short span, such large paintings were painted with natural organic pigments.During the Nayak period the chola paintings were painted over. The Chola frescos lying underneath have an ardent spirit of saivism isexpressed in them. They probably synchronised with the completion of the temple by Rajaraja Cholan the Great.Kerala has well preserved fresco or mural or wall painting in temple walls in Pundarikapuram, Ettumanoor, Aymanam andTrivandrum.
INDIAN ARCHITECTURE
Religious motifs inspired most of the trends in Indian architecture and sculpture. Temples, mosques, forts, palaces and other monuments testify to this. Contemporary architecture combines ancient and modern influences.Chandigarh, designed by Corbusier, stands out as a planned modern city. The oldest evidence of Indian buildings date back to fourthcentury BC. The common examples of Buddhist - Indian architecture are the famous stupas. They are said to have originated from prehistoric burial mounds, but soon became much more. They were covered with an umbrella - shaped stone canopy, and marked asimportant places.The most famous ancient building in India is the Taj Mahal. It was built by Shah Jahan as the tomb for his wife.Recently there has been a shift towards using a method of ancient architecture called Vaastusashtra. Vaastusashtra is based on theeffects of the five natural elements: sun, water, earth, sky, and air in relation to man. Indian architects use this science since flatsconstructed using this science are more in demand by buyers.Stories and legends are told about the great monuments in India. India has a vast culture, interesting facts and the revelations aremarvelous. As one looks at the beauty of Taj Mahal, we can just see the love Emperor Shah Jahan had for his wife. The work of UstadIsa Khan, the architect who designed this piece is exquisite. This is surely one of the best heritage sites in India.Down south is the Meenakshi Sundareshwar temple which bears the Shiv linga which was worshipped by Lord Indra to absolve himfrom sin. The Meenakshi Sundareshwar temple is a granite form and has twelve gopuras. Gopuras are the traditional architecturaltowers in the south of India. There are several shrines with the primary two shrines of the main Shiva and Parvathy.The Nagara architecture is well seen in the Khajuraho temples. The works are in rough granite and depict a lot of tradition. Thisrepresent the pictures of Gods and Goddesses. The beauty of apsaras and deities is well seen in the carvings. The interior is welldesigned to allow air and light and this is certainly a tourists must-visit place.The churches in Goa are spell bounding with their masterpiece works. The façade, interiors, dome shaped ceiling, painted windows area treat to ones eyes. The Portuguese churches are again typical in their setting. St Francis of Asisi, Chapel of St. Cahterine, Church of lady of Rosary and Basilica of Bom Jesus are some of the masterpieces. The Ajanta and Ellora caves are set in Aurangabad which arethirty in number. Most heritage sites are a result of accidental discovery and this too was found by a group of British people who wereon a hunting expedition. There is a prayer hall, monastery which strongly suggest Buddhist culture in the Ajanta caves. The Elloraagain shows the traces of Jain, Buddhist and Brahman religions.The Agra fort over the banks of Yamuna is another great place. The red stone colour is unique with the grandeur effect of architecture.Fatehpur Sikri was at its peak during the administration of Akbar. The tomb of Saint Sheik S Chisti, Jama Masjid, Bulund Darwaza aresome of the monuments that are famous hers. The Konark temple, Hampi, Qutab Minar are other famous monuments in India.
INDIAN FILMS
Indian films command a huge domestic market and are popular abroad, particularly in Asia, Africa and West Asia.
 
India leads the world in the output of films, with more than 800 Indian films produced annually.The major production of Indian movie centres are Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata. Apart from popular entertainment throughcommercial cinema, art cinema deals with a serious themes particularly relevant to Indian society. There has been widespreadrecognition of Indian artists and directors at film festivals in different parts of the world. Movies arrived in India less than a year after the Lumieres first exhibited their cinematographie in Paris. On July 7, 1896, an agentwho had brought equipment and films from France first showed his moving pictures in Bombay. That was an important day in thesocial and cultural history of the Indian people. The first Indian-made feature film (3700 feet long) was released in 1913. It was made by Dadasaheb Phalke and was called RajaHarishchandra. Based on a story from the Mahabharata it was a stirring film concerned with honour, sacrifice and mighty deeds. Fromthen on many "mythologicals" were made and took India by storm. Phalke's company alone produced about a hundred films. The First International Film Festival, held in Bombay in 1951, showed Italian works for the first time in India. The influence of  Neorealism can be seen in films such as Do Bigha Zamin/Two Measures of Land (Bimal Roy, 1953), a portrait of father and son ekingout a living in Calcutta that strongly echoes the narrative of Vittorio de Sica's Bicycle Thief (1948). Mehboob Khan's Andaz/Style(1949), an upperclass love triangle founded on a tragic misunderstanding, draws on codes of psychological representation -hallucinations and dreams that feature strongly in 1940s Hollywood melodrama. Mehboob's tendency to make a visual spectacle of hismaterial, and his involvement with populist themes and issues make him a good example of popular cinema of the time. The late Satyajit Ray was awarded many prestigious international awards including the Oscar in 1992 for Lifetime Achievement inCinema. Documentary and short film makers have also played an important role in spreading knowledge and awareness amongsections which are yet to get the benefits of modern education. Film and Television Institute of India, Pune, imparts training in filmmaking and televisions programme production. Hindi Movies made by the students of this Institute have won many national and international awards in festivals in India and abroadBollywood Music and bollywood moviesBollywood music : The background score or music plays a huge role in bollywood movies. The music is the soul of the movie. Themusic is what gets people to the theatres. It really does wonders for the movie. The starcast and movie also count but the music of amovie is what actually makes a difference. Bollywood has produced legends like R.D.Burman and Lata Mangeshkar.The melodies of R.D.Burman are still famous and are still heard and hummed by everyone. First the music is composed before themaking of the actual movie. There are songs also of different kinds, love songs, qawalis, gazals, sad songs. All kinds of songs, whichare hummed by almost everyone. The actors, dancers and location make the songs come alive. So everything goes together, the musicand the story which ultimately makes “the film.”A Bollywood movie is almost incomplete without a song. Before in olden days there used to be atleast fourteen-fifteen songs, butnowadays there are usually six-seven songs. The music of a movie makes people hum along and dance to its tunes. The new trend setin Bollywood movies are the 'dance numbers' which are an added attraction for the audiences. The background score of moviesimproves on the quality and speakers louder for the movie. The movie usually carries the story ahead and merges with the story. Inother words music and movies are two sides of the same coin. They go together hand in hand and are incomplete without each other.Bollywood Movies & Indian lifestyle. Everyone has a similar, boring routine to follow. Going to the cinema hall to catch a goodmovie adds a little spice to our otherwise monotonous lives. Bollywood movies or hindi movies have become an essential part of Indian families. Watching one of these movies is like watching a fantasy. Bollywood films been evolving from time to time. There has been a trend of love triangles lately. Bollywood movies range from emotional sagas to patriotic legends, romantic comedies to heartstopping thrillers, movies for children to bold documentaries. There is something for all kinds of audiences. There is entertainment packed for everyone. Hindi being the national language also has a national audience. Majority of India is rural so majority of theaudience is also rural. Usually directors go for something, which will be accepted by audiences of all kinds but recently manydirectors have been experimenting and making movies on bold subjects. Sometimes movies are made to bring about awareness amongthe people.These movies very beautifully express the cultures and ideas of Indians. These movies show how much importance Indians give tolove, emotions and feelings. There are so many people who get together , for months, and work from morning to evening everydayand then when the product ( movie ) is ready, it is all worth it!It is not only the actor or actress or bad guy (who always gets beaten up) who make up the movie, there are technicians, dancers,editors, make-up artists, spotboys, many people who work very hard to give us few hours of entertainment

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