Sudan and Egypt. At the end of 1970s, graduates from the Islamic universities in theArab world formed organizations such as Islah Al-Itihad. Other smaller organizationsalso began to emerge. All Islamic organizations began as civil Islamism; however, after the collapse of the state in 1991, some of them opted for militancy.
2. Could you talk about the role of Islamic organizations in state collapse/peacebuilding in the last 20-plus years in Somalia?
As you know, during the military regime that ruled Somalia (1969-1991), Islamicorganizations and political parties were totally outlawed. Nonetheless, oppositions of theregime were actively operating underground mobilizing people in the name of clan andIslam. In the early 1970s, the general trend of Islamism in Somalia was inspired byMuslim brotherhood ideology. However, with the increased contact with the Islamicworld, other trends came into view in Somalia. In the early 1980s, two main Islamicorganizations -Islah Movement and al-Itihad al-Islami- became highly visible. These twoorganizations took different directions and strategies after the collapse of the state in1991. For instance, Islah opted for peace promotion, reconciliation and social services, particularly in the education sector. On the other hand, Al-Itihad became militant andtried to establish “Islamic Emirates” in various regions of Somalia. The dream of Al-Itihad did not materialize and the organization had given up its militancy by 1997. Nevertheless, Islamic militancy re-emerged after 9/11 and the whole society was pushedtowards extremism, which ushered in new militant organizations including al-Shabab andHizbul-Islam. In general, the role of the Islamic organizations is visible in all sectors of life like politics, commerce, social services, education, health and reconciliation.3.
Talk about Islah’s model of civil Islamism and what has been the organization’sgreatest achievement?
Civil Islamism is one among many terminologies used to qualify modern Islamic trendsin the Western academia and media outlets. It signifies adherence to civil society2