With this in mind, a literature search on causative factors in PB safety was conducted, payingequal attention to studies on reducing fatalities at the level of the intersection or roadway and tostudies on the effect of larger-scale land use and infrastructure in fostering the growth of PB-friendly communities.The literature search consisted of a web-based search for articles using keywordcombinations expected to produce relevant results (e.g. “pedestrian” AND “fatalities” in anInternet search engine). In all, 36 articles were identified that addressed the issue of PB safety.Much more material is available on the topic of PB safety, however due to space and timeconstraints not all of it was considered for this study. Particularly, the literatures on theeffectiveness of helmet-use, and of technological improvements to automobile bodies, inreducing injury severity were not considered for this study (e.g. Thompson & Rivara 2001;Crandall, Bhalla & Madeley 2002). The reason for this is that these approaches are merelypalliative: they do not provide any guidance as to how to reduce the risk of collisions betweenpedestrians or bicycles and motorized traffic in the first place
.From the 36 articles identified that address curative approaches to PB safety, three broadcategories of approaches were identified:
Technology (including enforcement)
ReorientationThe first two, Education and Technology, concern the modification of the behavior of either pedestrians and bicyclists or automobile drivers, or both. Education, in turn, can be divided
On a side note, a study comparing safety practices in Boston, Paris and Amsterdam found that low rates of helmetuse do not necessarily lead to higher fatalities (Osberg & Stiles 1998). Similarly, a study in Australia determinedthat PB safety is higher when pedestrians and bicyclists are abundant (i.e. safety in number) and suggested thathelmet laws may actually increase the safety risk for bicyclists by discouraging bicycle use (Robinson 2005).