The term noosphere was originally coined by Teilhard de Chardin the Jesuitanthropologist. However it was Vernadsky integrated the emergence of noospherewith the evolutionary history of the planet. After Vernadsky many important thinkers on evolution have restated how emergenceof self-conscious humanity has made the crucial transition in evolution from biosphereto noosphere. In 1960, in the centennial year of the publication of ‘Origin of Species’,Sir Julian Huxley coined the term ‘psycho-social evolution’ to characterize the natureof evolution after the advent of humans:
Biological evolution is only one sector or phase of thistotal process. There is also the inorganic sector and the psycho-social or human sector. The phases succeed each other in time, the later being based on and evolving out of the earlier. The inorganic phase is pre-biological,the human is post-biological.
Huxley also strongly felt the need for a psychosocial science for guiding this post-biological evolution:
The primary job of psychosocial science will be to describe and analyze thecourse and mechanism of psychosocial evolution in scientific terms. It will alsoinclude a science of human possibilities. What are the possibilities of man and his nature, individually and collectively? How is their realization helped or hindered by different types of psychosocial environment? How can we estimatehuman fulfilment; in what ways and to what extent can it be promoted by changes in psychosocial organization? In particular, such a science will involve aradical re-thinking of man’s systems of education, their aims, content, and technique.
Swami Ranganathananda of Sri Ramakrishna Mission has elaborated upon theseideas of Huxley:
What is meant by ‘psychosocial’ evolution?From the living cell up to Homo sapiens,biological evolution was motivated by organic satisfactions, numerical increase and organic survival. But, with the appearance of humanity,these became, modern biology maintains,secondary. The primary motivation becomesfulfilment. Evolution itself becomes, at thisstage, conscious and deliberate and goal-oriented, unlike the instinctive processes at the prehuman stage.
Decades later in early 1980s, Jonas Salk the prime innovator of Polio vaccine, felt thatwith the advent of human mind a new phase has set in the planetary evolution. Hecalled it the metabiological evolution:
The beginning of life marked the beginning of biological evolution, sometimes referred to as Darwinian evolution.Increasingly complex organisms evolved until humanforms appeared – and with them, the development of the