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Study Material

Study Material

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Published by vasik

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Published by: vasik on Apr 01, 2013
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Two mark question
Define Environmental studies.
Environmental studies are the process of educating the people for preserving quality environment
What is environment?
Environment is sum total of water, air, and land, inter-relationships among themselves and also with thehuman beings, other living organisms and property
Mention the scope of Environmental studies.
To get an awareness and sensitivity to the total environment and its related problems.
To motivate the active participation in environmental protection and improvement.
To develop skills for identifying and solving environmental problems.
To know the necessity of conservation of natural resources.
To evaluate environmental programmes interms of social, economic, ecological, and aesthetic factors.
Mention the importance of Environmental studies
The air we breathe, the water we drink, the food we consume and the land we live on are allcontaminated by the industrial activities.
There is no zero pollution industry. Because of the lack of self discipline and not worrying about our,future generation, the valuable resources are polluted.
To solve the above problems, the knowledge of environmental studies is very important.
By environmental studies, people will understand the concept of "Need of development withoutdestruction of environment".
What is mining? Mention the methods of mining. Or What are the types of mining?
Mining is the process of extraction of metals from a mineral depositTypes of mining(a) Surface mining: Surface mining is the process of extraction of raw materials from the near-surfacedeposits.
(b) Underground mining:
It is the process of extraction of raw materials below the earth's surface. Itincludesi) Open-pit mining:In open-pit mining machines dig holes and remove the ores.
 Ex: Iron, copper, limestone, sand stone, marble, etc.,
(ii) Dredgeing:In dredging, chained buckets and draglines are used, which scrap up the minerals from under-water mineral deposit.(iii) Strip mining:In strip mining, the ore is stripped off by using bulldozers, stripping wheels
Enumerate the effects or impact of mining on the environment. OrState the environmental effects of extracting & using mineral resources.
Devegetation and Defacing of Landscape
Subsidence of Land
Ground water Contamination
Surface water Pollution
Air Pollution
Occupational Health Hazards
What are Dams? How is it useful to human beings?
Dams are built to control flood and store flood water.
Sometimes dams are used for diverting part or all of the water from river into a channel.
Dams are used mainly for drinking and agricultural purposes.
Dams are built for generating electricity.
Dams are used for recreational purposes.
 Navigation and fishery can be developed in the dam areas
Discuss the problems of over-exploitation of Ground water. Or Mention the effects of ground waterusage?
Decrease of Ground Water 
Ground subsidence
Lowering of water table
Intrusion of salt water 
Earthquake and landslides
Drying up of wells
Pollution of water 
What are the methods of flood control?
Floods can be controlled by constructing dams or reservoirs.
Channel management and embankments also control the floods.
Encroachment of flood ways should be banned.
Flood hazard may also be reduced by forecasting or flood warning.
Flood may also be reduced by reduction of runoff by increasing infiltration through appropriateafforestation in the catchment area.
What are the up-stream impacts of constsruction of dams?
Displacement of tribal people.
Loss of non-forest land.
Loss of forests, flora and fauna.
Landslips, sedimentation and siltation occurs.
Stagnation and water logging around reservoirs retards plant growth.
Breeding of vectors and spread of vector-borne diseases.
Reservoir induced seismicity (RIS) earthquakes.
 Navigation and aquaculture activities can be developed in the dam area.
Define under-nutrition & mal-nutrition.
Under nutrition (or) under nourished:People who cannot buy enough food to meet their basic energy needs (carbohydrates) suffer from under nutrition. They receive less than 90% of these minimum dietary caloriesMalnutrition (or) malnourished:Besides the minimum calorie intake we also need proteins, minerals, vitamins, iron and iodine.Deficiency or lack of nutrition often leads to malnutrition resulting in several diseases
What are the merits of using renewable energy resources?
Unlimited supply
Provides energy security.
Fits into sustainable development concept.
Reliable and the devices are modular in size.
Decentralized energy production
Why alternate energy resources are required?
The increased power demand, depleting fossil fuel resources and growing environmental pollutionhave led the world to think seriously for other alternative sources of energy
What is the application of wind energy?
Merits of renewable energy resources
Unlimited supply
Provides energy security.
Fits into sustainable development concept.
Reliable and the devices are modular in size.
Decentralized energy production
Write a note on Geo-Thermal energy.
The energy harnessed from the hot rocks present inside the earth is called geothermal energyHoles are drilled artificially upto the hot rocks and and pipes are put through which the steam gushes outat high pressure which turns the turbine of a generator to produce electricity
What is soil erosion?
Clearing of forest cover exposes the soil to wind and rainfall, resulting in loss of top fertile soil layer 
Differentiate between renewable & non-renewable energy resources.
Difference in:Renewable resources1) The resources that can be renewed by reproduction are called renewable resources.2) Renewable resources are inexhaustible.3) Renewable resources are not affected by the human activities.4) All biotic resources are renewable.5) For example: air and water. Non-renewable resources1) The resources that are present in fixed quantities are called non-renewable resources.2) Non-renewable resources are inexhaustible.3) Non renewable resources are affected by human activities.4) Some abiotic resources are non-renewable.5) For example- fossil fuels and minerals.
Mention the advantages & disadvantages of modern agriculture.19.
What is an aquifer? Mention its types.
A layer of highly permeable rock containing water is called an aquifer 
Types of aquifers
Unconfined aquifers2.
2. Confined aquifer 
Mention the types of drought.
Meteorological drought.
Hydrological drought.
Agricultural drought.
Socio-economic drought

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