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Glossary of Tubes & Pipes

Glossary of Tubes & Pipes

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Air cushion foil
That means a special packaging foil of plastic consisting of a multitude of air-filled chambers, to notonly protect the wrapped (packaged) product against contamination, but also against impact load.
Alloying surcharge
Surcharge to the sales price for compensation of price fluctuations of the preliminary material betweenorder entry and delivery, based on changes of the nickel, chromium and molybdenum price.
Annealing
That is the designation for the thermal treatments, with which the material properties can be changed.First of all the steel is heated to certain temperatures, followed by a certain holding time andsubsequent cooling. The temperatures for the various annealing types depend on the chemicalcomposition and the desired properties.There is a differentiation between:1.Stress relief annealing. Internal stresses, which occur during cooling of a work-piece, arereduced with this annealing method.2.Re-crystallization annealing. Here the steel is heated beyond its re-crystallization temperatureto enable a deformation of the crystal lattice. This thermal treatment is predominantly appliedafter strong deformations (drawing, pilger milling, etc.).3.Soft annealing produces a soft condition - favorable for further treatment. Thus evencementite particles are globularly spheroidized.4.Normalizing annealing sets a uniform and fine-grained microstructure with shares of pearlite.5.Coarse grain annealing serves the achievement of a coarse grain. Thus the ability for rapidmachining is improved.6.Diffusion annealing allows the elimination of local concentration differences (segregation).
Approvals
An approval of a certain organization (TÜV, Loyd's, etc.) is granted due to a successful audit andcertifies the manufacturer/manufactured product that production was according to the provisionsand/or guidelines of the approval authorities.
ASME III
The American Society Of Mechanical Engineers rules for construction of nuclear facility components(=ASME) is a set of rules about the system requirements with regard to nuclear demand.
ASTM
Abbreviation for American Society for Testing and Materials. Among others, deals with issuing omaterial and testing standards.
Audit
Means a documenting measure, which is executed to ensure by means of examination of the actualcircumstances, that the selected components of the approved quality management system weredeveloped and documented (implemented) in compliance with the determined (specified)requirements. An audit does not include monitoring and inspection for the purpose of process controland/or material acceptance.
Austenite
Crystal of iron (non-magnetic), which is characterized by a cubic face centered lattice structure.
 
Bending test
For the bending test, a bending sample with rectangular, circular or polygonal cross section is bentquickly in a bending device, until either a certain bending angle is achieved or the formability isexhausted. The test is then positive, when a determined bending angle (compared with the unloadedsample) is achieved without occurrence of an incipient crack.
Beveling
Beveling means the chamfering of edges of plates, tube or steel bar ends by planing, milling, turningor flame-cutting. For bar ends it facilitates the entry into the tensioning tools, for plates and tubes itserves as welding edge preparation.
Billet
The preliminary material for the production of seamless stainless steel tubes is delivered in bars with acertain diameter. Of these preliminary material bars, billets with a certain length are sawn off,according to dimension and length of the desired finished tubes, which are pressed to seamlessstainless steel tubes on the extruding press.
Billet heating
Billet heating of billets is executed in a rotary hearth furnace, in which heating from room temperatureto forming temperature (approx. 1100 °C) takes place.
Billet preparation
In billet preparation, the preliminary material bar is sawn up into billet length, a center bore is drilled,the frontal area of the billet is faced and the corners are chamfered. Following the billet greasing thereis one last visual check after which the billets are heated.
Boiler
Today, the preparation of warm water mostly takes place in combination boilers, in which the boilerwater is heated directly, the water for industrial use, however, is heated indirectly by the boiler waterby means of a heat exchanger (boiler). The heat energy of the boiler water is transferred to the waterfor industrial use by thermal conduction. While the boiler water circulates in a closed cycle andsupplies the water for industrial use with the energy won from combustion of coal and oil in theheating boiler, it is used for washing, bathing and drinking.
Bonderizing
For mandrel drawing, drawing soaps (stearates) are used as lubricant, which are applied to the tubesurface by immersion into a soaping bath at approx. 70 °C. Before soaping, the tubes are providedwith a substrate, the so-called drawing bonder, which is applied by immersion into a heated oxalic acidsolution (70 - 80 °C). Neutralization has to be performed between bonderizing and soaping.
Brand
In general, a brand is a medium used in business dealings for marking of goods or services of acertain company with the target to distinguish these products from those of others. E.g.: A200 is asteel brand of the company SBER, whose chemical composition corresponds various standardizedmaterials like DIN 1.4401/1.4404 as well as ASTM TP316/TP316L.
Bright annealing
Is annealing in an inert gas atmosphere (hydrogen, nitrogen, ...) without atmospheric oxygen, toavoid oxidation, so that no scale and/or oxidation layers can form on the work-piece.
Bulged ends
Bulged ends are generated at hollows, which are manufactured by means of stretch reduction. Forstretch reduction, each hollow section is stretched between two roll stands respectively, because thespeed of the individual stands in the delivery direction increases permanently, except for start and endof the hollow. While at the start of the hollows there can be no tension by the subsequent (faster)stand, the retaining effect of the slower rotating stand is missing at the end of the hollow. The bulgedends are cut off of the hollows and disposed as rejects.
Bursting pressure
This means that internal pressure of a tube, which makes it burst.
 
 
Calibration
For measuring devices it means the adjustment of the display accuracy of an instrument by comparingit to a test device.
Casing
Tube for lining the drill hole of deep wells, to protect it from collapsing. Casings belong to thesubsurface oil field tubes.
Certificate
Inspection certificate.
Certificate
Proof of a successful certification.
Certificate of compliance with the order
In the certificate of compliance with the order, the manufacturing or processing plant confirms bymeans of a text without expressly stated test results that the product delivered complies with theagreements of the order.
Certification
Certification means to certify the product or a service the conformity with certain technical rules andprocess flows by an independent third person.
Check analysis
Is the examination of the chemical composition of the finished product.
Chemical composition
Informs about the components of a matter, in a quantitative as well as in a qualitative manner. Thechemical composition of steel gives an insight into the content of its alloying and accompanyingelements. It is permanently monitored during the steel production process.
Chemical testing
Are examinations, which describe the chemical composition of the material to be examined.
CHI-phase
Undesired, embrittling metallic phase, which can precipitate from stainless steels at temperaturesaround 475 °C.
CMTR 
The Certified Material Test Report is a certificate for material required according to ASME-Code SectionIII, which confirms, that the material complies with the specified requirements, including the results of all required analyses, tests and examinations.
Coil
Coiled strip, steel tube or wire.
Cold-formed tube
Is produced by cold drawing or cold pilger rolling of hot-formed tube hollows.
Cold forming
That means a forming, which takes place below the re-crystallization temperature like e.g. colddrawing or cold pilger rolling.
Continuous furnace
The continuous furnace is a thermal facility, which allows a thermal treatment of step-wise or step-less

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