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Q1. Define OD and enlist its important characteristics.Ans. The literature contains several definitions of OD, to quote a few:
OD is a response to change, a complex educational strategy intended to changethe beliefs, attitudes, values and structure of organization so they can better adoptnew technologies, markets and challenges, and the dizzying rate of change itself ( Bennis, 1969).
OD is planned process of change in an organization’s culture through theutilization of behavioral science, technology, research and theory. ( Burke 1982)
Organizational Development is an effort (1)planned,(2) organizational wide, (3)managed from the top, (4) to increase organization effectiveness and healththrough (5) planned interventions in the organization’s processes, usingbehavioral science knowledge. (Beckhard,1969)Let us examine this definition:1.
It is a planned change effort. An OD program involves a systematic diagnosis of the organization, the development of strategic plan for improvement, and themobilization of resources to carry out the effort.2.
It involves the total system. An organization development effort is related to atotal organization change in the culture and the reward system or the totalmanagerial strategy.3.
It is managed from the top. In an OD effort the top management of the system haspersonal investment in the program and it’s outcomes. They actively participatesin the management of the effort. This does not mean that they must participate inthe same activities as others, but it does that they must have both knowledge andcommitment to the goals of the programs and must actively support the methodsused to achieve goals.4.
It is designed to increase organization effectiveness and health.Another Classic definition Offered by French And BELL:Organizational development is a long range effort to improve an organization’s problemsolving and renewal processes, particularly through a more effective and collaborativemanagement of organization’s culture-with special emphasis on the culture of formalwork teams – with the assistance of a change agent, or catalyst, and the use of the theoryand technology of applied behavioral science, including action research.Porras and Robertson state: OD is a practical application of the science of organization.Drawing from several discipline for its models, strategies and techniques, OD focuses onthe planned change of human systems and contributes to organization science through theknowledge gained from its studies of complex change dynamics.