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Organizational Development[1]

Organizational Development[1]



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Published by n k

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Published by: n k on Mar 17, 2009
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 Page 1 of 35
Organizational Development
Q1. Define OD and enlist its important characteristics.Ans. The literature contains several definitions of OD, to quote a few:
OD is a response to change, a complex educational strategy intended to changethe beliefs, attitudes, values and structure of organization so they can better adoptnew technologies, markets and challenges, and the dizzying rate of change itself ( Bennis, 1969).
OD is planned process of change in an organization’s culture through theutilization of behavioral science, technology, research and theory. ( Burke 1982)
Organizational Development is an effort (1)planned,(2) organizational wide, (3)managed from the top, (4) to increase organization effectiveness and healththrough (5) planned interventions in the organization’s processes, usingbehavioral science knowledge. (Beckhard,1969)Let us examine this definition:1.
It is a planned change effort. An OD program involves a systematic diagnosis of the organization, the development of strategic plan for improvement, and themobilization of resources to carry out the effort.2.
It involves the total system. An organization development effort is related to atotal organization change in the culture and the reward system or the totalmanagerial strategy.3.
It is managed from the top. In an OD effort the top management of the system haspersonal investment in the program and it’s outcomes. They actively participatesin the management of the effort. This does not mean that they must participate inthe same activities as others, but it does that they must have both knowledge andcommitment to the goals of the programs and must actively support the methodsused to achieve goals.4.
It is designed to increase organization effectiveness and health.Another Classic definition Offered by French And BELL:Organizational development is a long range effort to improve an organization’s problemsolving and renewal processes, particularly through a more effective and collaborativemanagement of organization’s culture-with special emphasis on the culture of formalwork teams – with the assistance of a change agent, or catalyst, and the use of the theoryand technology of applied behavioral science, including action research.Porras and Robertson state: OD is a practical application of the science of organization.Drawing from several discipline for its models, strategies and techniques, OD focuses onthe planned change of human systems and contributes to organization science through theknowledge gained from its studies of complex change dynamics.
 Page 2 of 35To summarize, here are primary the distinguishing characteristics of OD:1.
OD focuses on culture and processes.2.
Specifically, OC encourages collaboration between organization leaders andmembers managing culture and processes.3.
Teams of all kind is particularly important for task accomplishment and is targetsfor OD activities.4.
OD focuses on the human and social side of the organization primarily, and in sodoing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides.5.
OD focuses on total system change and views organization as complex socialsystem.6.
OD relies on an action research model with extensive participation by clientsystem members.7.
OD takes a developmental view that seeks the betterment both individuals andorganizational attempting to create WIN WIN solutions.8.
OD practitioners are facilitators, collaborators, and co learners with the clientsystem.
 Page 3 of 35
Q2. Write brief note on the following:a. Change Management models.
Ans. Models and theories of planned change- OC is planned change in anorganizational context. The development models of planned change facilitated thedevelopment of OD. The work of the pioneering social psychologist Kurt Lewin wasinstrumental in this approach. Kurt Lewin introduced the idea about changed process.Stage 1: Unfreezing : creating motivation and readiness to change througha.
Disconfirmation or lack of confirmation.b.
Creation of guilt or anxietyc.
Provision of psychological safety.Stage 2: Changing through Cognitive restructuring: Helping the Client to see things, judge things, feel things and react to things differently based on a new pointof view obtained througha.
Identifying with a new role model, mentor etc.b.
Scanning the environment for new relevant information.Stage 3: Refreezing: Helping the client to integrate the new point of view intoa.
The total personality and self conceptb.
Significant RelationshipLewin’s three stage model is a powerful cognitive tool for understanding changesituations.1.
Unfreezing – The first task is to make the people aware of the need for change. Aclimate of openness and trust is developed so that the group is ready for change.2.
Moving- using the survey feedback method, the group makes a diagnosis of where it is and develops action plans where it wants to go.3.
Refreezing- Once the plans have been carried out and an evaluation has beenmade, the group starts to stabilize into more effective performance.
2b. Empowerment:
Ans. One of the most important foundations of OD is its use of a participation andempowerment model. The participation in OD programs is not restricted to the toppeople; it is extended broadly through out the organization. Increased participation andempowerment have always been central goals and core values of the field.To empower is to give some one power. This is done by giving individuals the authorityto participate, to make decisions, to contribute their ideas, to exert influence, and to beresponsible. That is why participation is such an effective form of empowerment.Participation enhances empowerment, and empowerment in turn enhances performanceand individual well-being.OD interventions are deliberately designed to increase involvement and participation byorganization leaders and members. For example, autonomous work groups, qualitycircles, team building, survey feedback, quality of work life programs and opportunities.OD interventions are basically methods for increasing participation. The entire field of OD is about empowerment.

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