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primary reason though is that in explaining human action, it is assumed that there can be multiplecauses operating independently or jointly to produce the same or similar effects.
Direction of influence
: The second criterion necessary to establish a causal relationship betweenevents is that cause must precede its effect. At least the direction of influence should be from causeto effect. In other words, changes in the causal factor or independent variable must influencechanges in the effect, or dependent variable; however, not vice versa. For example, the formation of clouds is always expected to precede the rains.The requirement of determining direction of influence has two major implications for designing aresearch study
a) hypothetical relationships should always specify the direction of influence amongvariables; and b) whenever the direction cannot be established theoretically it should be testedempirically. However, this task is relatively easier in experiments but often difficult in other types of social research.
: When a correlation or association is produced by an extraneous third factor andnone of the variables involved in the correlation has influenced the other then the relationship iscalled as a spurious relationship. The idea of nonspuriousness in research means that to infer a causalrelationship from an observed correlation there should be good reasons to believe that there are nohidden factors which could have created an accidental or spurious relationship. To infernonspuriousness, the researcher ideally is in a position to show that the relationship between thevariables is held as constant. However, circumstances seldom allow research to control all variables.The greater the number of variables that is controlled without altering a relationship, the greater isthe likelihood that the relationship is not spurious.