Experimental determination of suitable ethanol–gasoline blend rateat high compression ratio for gasoline engine
M. Bahattin Celik
Karabuk University, Technical Education Faculty, 78050 Karabuk, Turkey
Received 17 April 2007; accepted 26 October 2007Available online 19 November 2007
Ethanol produced from biomass has high octane number and gives lower emissions. Therefore, it is used as alternative fuel in thegasoline engines. In this study, ethanol was used as fuel at high compression ratio to improve performance and to reduce emissionsin a small gasoline engine with low eﬃciency. Initially, the engine whose compression ratio was 6/1 was tested with gasoline, E25(75% gasoline + 25% ethanol), E50, E75 and E100 fuels at a constant load and speed. It was determined from the experimental resultsthat the most suitable fuel in terms of performance and emissions was E50. Then, the compression ratio was raised from 6/1 to 10/1. Theengine was tested with E0 fuel at a compression ratio of 6/1 and with E50 fuel at a compression ratio of 10/1 at full load and variousspeeds without any knock. The cylinder pressures were recorded for each compression ratio and fuel. The experimental results showedthat engine power increased by about 29% when running with E50 fuel compared to the running with E0 fuel. Moreover, the speciﬁc fuelconsumption, and CO, CO
, HC and NO
emissions were reduced by about 3%, 53%, 10%, 12% and 19%, respectively.
2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ethanol; Performance; Emissions; High compression ratio
The increasing demand for energy and stringent pollu-tion regulations as a result of the population growth andtechnological development in the world promote researchon alternative fuels. The investigations have concen-trated on decreasing fuel consumption and on loweringthe concentration of toxic components in combustionproduct by using non-petroleum, renewable, sustainableand non-polluting fuels. The high octane ratings of the alcohols and their high heats of vaporization havemade them preferred fuels for use in-high compressionratio (CR), high-output engines. High octane values whichcan permit signiﬁcant increases of compression ratio and/or spark advance, and high heats of evaporation whichcan provide fuel–air charge cooling and density increase,and thus higher mass throughput. In theory, for anun-throttled Otto-cycle engine, the eﬃciency
can be writ-ten as
is compression ratio and
is speciﬁc heat ratio. If the compression ratio can be furtherraised, the heat eﬃciency and engine power output can beimproved. As a fuel for spark ignition engines, alcoholshave some other advantages over gasoline, such as thereduction of CO and UHC emissions. As ethanol fuelalso has high heat of vaporization, it reduces the peak tem-perature inside the cylinder and hence reduces the NO
emissions.Ethanol is an alcohol-based alternative fuel producedby fermenting and distilling starch crops that have beenconverted into simple sugars. Feedstocks for this fuelinclude corn, barley and wheat. Ethanol can be producedfrom cellulose feedstock such as corn stalks, rice straw,and sugar cane which are examples of feedstock that con-tain sugar. As ethanol can be produced from agricul-tural crops, its cost can be lower in the states whoseeconomy is largely based on agriculture and it can be used
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2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2007.10.028
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Applied Thermal Engineering 28 (2008) 396–404