Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 7093–7100
The inﬂuence of air–fuel ratio on engine performanceand pollutant emission of an SI engine usingethanol–gasoline-blended fuels
, Rong-Horng Chen
, Jen-Yung Pu
, Ta-Hui Lin
Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan, ROC
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Southern Taiwan University of Technology, Tainan 71043, Taiwan, ROC
Received 1 October 2003; received in revised form 5 January 2004; accepted 26 January 2004
Ethanol–gasoline-blended fuel was tested in a conventional engine under various air–fuel equivalence ratios (
) for itsperformance and emissions. The amount of fuel injection was adjusted manually by an open-loop control system usinga CONSULT controller. It was found that without changing throttle opening and injection strategy,
could beextended to a leaner condition as ethanol content increased. The results of engine performance tests showed that torqueoutput would increase slightly at small throttle valve opening when ethanol–gasoline-blended fuel was used. It was alsoshown that CO and HC emissions were reduced with the increase of ethanol content in the blended fuel, which resultedfrom oxygen enrichment. At an air–fuel equivalence ratio slightly larger than one, the smallest amounts of CO and HCand the largest amounts of CO
resulted. It was noted that under the lean combustion condition, CO
emission wascontrolled by air–fuel equivalence ratio; while under the rich combustion condition, CO
emission is offset by COemission. It was also found that CO
emission per unit horse power output for blended fuel was similar or less than thatfor gasoline fuel. From the experimental data, the optimal ethanol content in the gasoline and air–fuel equivalence ratioin terms of engine performance and air pollution was found.
2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ethanol–gasoline-blended fuel; Air–fuel ratio; Pollutant emission; Engine performance
With the rapid development of the industry andsociety, the requirement of fossil fuels is growing higherand higher, so there is great anxiety about the shortageof energy because of ﬁnite reserves or other politicalreasons (such as petroleum crisis and the Persian Gulf War). Besides designing more efﬁcient engines to savefuel, we need to look for other energy sources tocompletely or partially substitute the fuels we are usingat present. Then the demand and dependence on fossilfuels can be lowered. Furthermore, environmentalprotection issues have been emphasized around theworld in recent years, so it is urgent to ﬁnd some cleanand suitable alternative fuels to meet environmentalneeds.In alcohols, methanol and ethanol are used most oftenas fuels and fuel additives. It is known that natural gas isneeded in manufacturing methanol. But natural gasis not abundant in Taiwan, so the goal of energy
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2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.01.058
Corresponding author. Tel.: 88662752525x62167; fax:88662352973.
firstname.lastname@example.org (T.-H. Lin).