Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
3Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
GRG_PAPER

GRG_PAPER

Ratings: (0)|Views: 13 |Likes:
Published by arbab64
A variable gravitational and cosmological constants model having viscosity is found to describe our present universe. It shows the viscosity is an important ingreient in cosmic fluid. It led to inflation, an epoch of fast expansion
A variable gravitational and cosmological constants model having viscosity is found to describe our present universe. It shows the viscosity is an important ingreient in cosmic fluid. It led to inflation, an epoch of fast expansion

More info:

Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: arbab64 on Mar 18, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

08/02/2014

pdf

text

original

 
General Relativity and Gravitation, Vol. 29, No. 1, 1997 
Cosmological Models With Variable Cosmologicaland Gravitational
ª
Constantsº and Bulk ViscousModels
Arbab I. Arbab
1
Received October 30, 1995. Rev. version August 23, 1996 
A viscous model with variable gravitational and cosmological constanthas been considered. Several solutions are presented and some are shownto be equivalent to Berman, Kalligas et al. and Brans±Dicke solutions.KEY WORDS : Friedmann cosmological models ; in¯ation
1. INTRODUCTION
The role of viscosity in cosmology has been studied by several authors [1±4].The bulk viscosity associated with grand uni®ed theory phase transitioncan lead to the in¯ationary universe scenario. It is well known that inan early stage of the universe when neutrino decoupling occurred, thematter behaves like viscous ¯uid [22]. The coecient of viscosity is knownto decrease as the universe expands. Beesham [20] studied a universeconsisting of a cosmological constant (
L
~
t
-
2
) and bulk viscosity. Heshowed that the Berman model could be a viscous model for
n
=
12
. Morerecently Abdel Rahman considered a model in which the gravitationalconstant,
, varies with time but energy is conserved [11]. et al. [8,19].In the present work we will investigate the eŒect of viscosity in a universewhere
and
L
vary in such a way that energy is conserved.
1
Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, P.O. 321, Khar-toum 11115, Sudan61
0001-7701/ 97/ 0100-0061$09.50/ 0 1997 Plenum Publishing Corporation
 
62 A rbab
2. THE MODEL
In a Robertson±Walker universe
2
=
dt
2
 ±
R
2
(
t
)
[
dr
2
1 ±
kr
2
+
r
2
(
2
+ sin
2
2
)
]
,
(1)where
is the curvature index.Einstein’s ®eld equations with time dependent cosmological and grav-itational
ª
constantsºR
m
±
12
 g 
m
R = 8
G
m
+
L
 g 
m
(2)and the perfect ¯uid energy momentum tensor
m
= (
+
p
)
m
±
pg 
m
(3)yield the two independent equations3 È
RR
= ± 4
(
3
 p
+
±
L
4
)
,
(4)3 Ç
R
2
R
2
= 8
(
+
L
8
)
±3
R
2
.
(5)Elimination of È
R
gives3(
 p
+
)Ç
R
= ±
(
Ç
+ Ç
+ Ç
L
8
)
R
.
(6)The conservation of energy and momentum yields3(
 p
+
) = ±
R
dR
.
(7)The eŒect of bulk viscosity in the ®eld equation is to replace
p
by
p
 ± 3
g
,where
g
is the viscosity coecient. It follows immediately that9
g
Ç
R
=
(
Ç
+ Ç
L
8
)
R
(8)and Ç
+ 3
(
+
p
) = 0
.
(9)
 
C osm ological M odels W ith Variable
L
and
63
Equation (8) can be written as9
g
R
=
9
+
L
9
8
,
(10)where prime denotes derivative w.r.t scale factor
R
while dot is the deriva-tive w.r.t to cosmic time
t
. In what follows we will consider a ¯at universe,
= 0.Equations (5) and (17) lead to8
= 3(1 ±
)
2
(11)and the equation of state
 p
= (
± 1)
(12)in eqs. (8) and (9) leads to
=
AR
-
3
,
(13)where
A
is a constant.9
g
R
= 2
9
±
9
+2
(1 ±
)
9
(14)or
9
2
+3
(1 ±
)2
R
1
=9(1 ±
)
g
0
A
n
-
1
2
R
-
3
n
+ 3
-
1
,
(15)where we have taken the viscosity coecient to have the power law
g
=
g
0
n
,
g
0
0
, n
const.
,
(16)and the ansatz
L
= 3
2
,
const
.
(17)The solution of eq. (15) is obtained as follows. Let
y
= 1
 / 
and
a
=[3
(1 ±
)]
 / 
2. Therefore
dR yR
-
a
=± 9(1 ±
)
g
0
A
n
-
1
2
R
-
3
n
+ 3
-
a
-
1
,
(18)
 yR
-
a
=9(1 ±
)
g
0
A
n
-
1
2(3
n
± 3
+
a
)
R
-
3
n
+ 3
-
a
,
(19)
 y
=9(1 ±
)
g
0
A
n
-
1
2(3
n
± 3
+
a
)
R
-
3
n
+ 3
,
(20)

Activity (3)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads
JK Rastogi liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->