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CI Concession Best Practices3rd DRAFTMiriam S. WymanINTRODUCTIONWhy we created this guide
The World Conservation Union (IUCN) defines a Protected Area (PA) as “
an area of land and/or sea especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biodiversity, and of natural and associated cultural resources, and managed through legal or other effective means
” (IUCN,1994). There has been a significant increase in both the number of PAs (a recent assessment of 104,000 sites) and area covered by PAs, from 2.4 million km² in 1962 to over 20 million km² in2004 (Chape et al, 2005); PAs cover an area of roughly 12% of the global land surfaceDespite the acknowledged importance of PAs worldwide to protect biodiversity, reduce povertyand promote sustainable development, a consensus has emerged that current spending on PAs isgrossly inadequate for both supporting the costs of existing sites, as well as ensuring the creationand effective management of a representative global system of PAs to meet urgent conservation priorities (Eagles et al., 2002). According to one widely-cited estimate, in order to secure anexpanded network of PAs (covering 30% of marine ecosystems and 15% of terrestrial lands),$45 billion per year (over 30 years) may be required (Balmford et al., 2002). A more modestestimate of $12-13 billion annually over the next decade to manage PAs in developing countrieshas also been presented (Bruner et al, 2003). As the current total turnover of the entire globaltourism business is calculated to be 6 trillion USD, only half of one per cent (0.5%) is required tomeet the estimated need at the high end.In 1993 and 1995 the World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC) conducted two surveysrelating to park and protected area funding in 108 counties. The results showed an averagefunding (for both infrastructure and services) in developed countries to be US$ 893 km², and indeveloping countries US$ 157 km² (Li & Han, 2001). Many, if not most PAs face a fundingcrisis, both in terms of the amount of funds available and how those funds are used. There is anurgent need to expand and diversify PA financial options and to ensure that funding reaches thegroups and activities essential for biodiversity conservation (Eagles, 2001); tourism presents aviable financial option.
Tourism and Protected Areas
Tourism is now the world’s largest industry, accounting for over 10% of the global economy andin 37 less-developed countries is the principal source of foreign exchange (Christ et al, 2003).
Tourism and recreation are also highly valued PA benefits. For example, nature-based tourism isa major component of export income in Australia, Botswana, Costa Rica, Kenya, Nepal, NewZealand and Tanzania (Eagles, 2001). PAs receive millions of visitors and for some PAs the feescharged for entry or for recreational activities generate significant revenue. In South Africa, for example, approximately 60 percent of all foreign tourists visit a national park or game reserve.