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Concessions DRAFT Jan 2009 Full

Concessions DRAFT Jan 2009 Full

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Published by inamdar1
Draft Document on Concessions Good Practices and management
Draft Document on Concessions Good Practices and management

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Published by: inamdar1 on Mar 18, 2009
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02/16/2013

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CI Concession Best Practices3rd DRAFTMiriam S. WymanINTRODUCTIONWhy we created this guide
The World Conservation Union (IUCN) defines a Protected Area (PA) as “
an area of land and/or sea especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biodiversity, and of natural and associated cultural resources, and managed through legal or other effective means
” (IUCN,1994). There has been a significant increase in both the number of PAs (a recent assessment of 104,000 sites) and area covered by PAs, from 2.4 million km² in 1962 to over 20 million km² in2004 (Chape et al, 2005); PAs cover an area of roughly 12% of the global land surfaceDespite the acknowledged importance of PAs worldwide to protect biodiversity, reduce povertyand promote sustainable development, a consensus has emerged that current spending on PAs isgrossly inadequate for both supporting the costs of existing sites, as well as ensuring the creationand effective management of a representative global system of PAs to meet urgent conservation priorities (Eagles et al., 2002). According to one widely-cited estimate, in order to secure anexpanded network of PAs (covering 30% of marine ecosystems and 15% of terrestrial lands),$45 billion per year (over 30 years) may be required (Balmford et al., 2002). A more modestestimate of $12-13 billion annually over the next decade to manage PAs in developing countrieshas also been presented (Bruner et al, 2003). As the current total turnover of the entire globaltourism business is calculated to be 6 trillion USD, only half of one per cent (0.5%) is required tomeet the estimated need at the high end.In 1993 and 1995 the World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC) conducted two surveysrelating to park and protected area funding in 108 counties. The results showed an averagefunding (for both infrastructure and services) in developed countries to be US$ 893 km², and indeveloping countries US$ 157 km² (Li & Han, 2001). Many, if not most PAs face a fundingcrisis, both in terms of the amount of funds available and how those funds are used. There is anurgent need to expand and diversify PA financial options and to ensure that funding reaches thegroups and activities essential for biodiversity conservation (Eagles, 2001); tourism presents aviable financial option.
Tourism and Protected Areas
Tourism is now the world’s largest industry, accounting for over 10% of the global economy andin 37 less-developed countries is the principal source of foreign exchange (Christ et al, 2003).
 
Tourism and recreation are also highly valued PA benefits. For example, nature-based tourism isa major component of export income in Australia, Botswana, Costa Rica, Kenya, Nepal, NewZealand and Tanzania (Eagles, 2001). PAs receive millions of visitors and for some PAs the feescharged for entry or for recreational activities generate significant revenue. In South Africa, for example, approximately 60 percent of all foreign tourists visit a national park or game reserve.
 
 - 2 -With this income, the South African National Parks Board finances up to 80 percent of its annual budget from tourism receipts alone (Eagles et al., 2002). A response to PA operations andmaintenance funding issues in developed countries such as Canada and the United States, wherethe traditional tax-based government appropriations have decreased, has been to rely more on park-generated revenues, especially as tourist numbers continue to increase (Brown, 2001).With 700 million people traveling each year, and over 33,000 protected areas worldwide, tourismis a growing source of revenue for the management of PAs with important natural and culturalresources, as well as the communities living within and around these areas. While tourism canlead to problems such as waste, habitat destruction and the displacement of local people andwildlife, with appropriate planning tourism also has the potential to provide incentives for conservation. And aside from revenue generation, tourism also acts as a driver for economicdevelopment more generally, supporting a variety of local and national businesses, such asrestaurants, hotels, transport and the production of souvenirs within PAs (Eagles et al., 2002).Undoubtedly, biodiversity conservation planners around the world need to focus on ensuringecotourism is an important ally in their struggle for preserving the natural environment(Ceballos-Lascurain, 2001).
Document Objectives
A detailed and in-depth review of concession agreements and government documents wasconducted from 22 countries. These primarily covered Latin America (9 countries) with other examples from Southern Africa (5 countries), Australia & New Zealand, the U.S. and Canada,and Asia (4 countries) (Table 1). The data reviewed do not capture the volume of tourismconcessions taking place within protected areas worldwide. For some of the case studies used,gaps exist with regard to specific concession contract components and therefore do not providedefinite conclusions about a given country or region of the world. However, these reviewedgovernment documents and case studies provide an overview of where best practices are beingestablished as a priority with tourism concessions and where more development is needed.Based on obtained information, strengths overall appear to be with the social and environmentalresponsibility components while concessionaire qualifications, legal, and financial responsibilitycomponents appear the weakest.
 
 - 3 -
Table 1
ConcessionqualificationsLegalResponsibilityFinancialResponsibilityEnvironmentalResponsibilitySocialResponsibility
   F   i  n  a  n  c   i  a   l  c  a  p  a  c   i   t  y   T  o  u  r   i  s  m  e  x  p  e  r   i  e  n  c  e   E   d  u  c  a   t   i  o  n   l  e  v  e   l   L  a  n  u  a  e  a   b   i   l   i   t   i  e  s   C  o  n   t  r  a  c   t   l  e  n  g   t   h   (  a  v  e .   )   L  a   t  e   /  n  o  n  -  p  a  y  m  e  n   t   f  e  e   F  a  c   i   l   i   t  y  o  w  n  e  r  s   h   i  p   E  n  v   i  r  o  n   /   C  o  m .   d  a  m  a  g  e   F   i  n  e  s   C  o  n   t  r  a  c   t  n  o  n  -   f  u   l   f   i   l   l  m  e  n   t   P  e  r   f  o  r  m  a  n  c  e   b  o  n   d  s   C  o  n  c  e  s  s   i  o  n  a   i  r  e  u  s  e  r   f  e  e   I  n  c  o  m  e  r  e  q  u   i  r  e  m  e  n   t  s   M  a   i  n   t  e  n  a  n  c  e   /  r  e  a   i  r  r  e  s .   I  n   f  r  a  s   t  r  u  c   t  u  r  e   d  e  v   l  p  m   t   M  o  n   i   t  o  r   i  n  g  p   l  a  n   A   l   t  e  r  n  a   t   i  v  e   E  n  e  r  g  y   W  a  s   t  e   M  a  n  a  g  e  m  e  n   t   R   i  s   k   A  n  a   l  s   i  s   C  a  p  a  c   i   t  y   B  u   i   l   d   i  n  g   L  o  c  a   l  e  m  p   l  o  y  m  e  n   t   C  o  m  m  u  n   i   t  y   A  s  s  e  s  s  m  e  n   t   C  o  m  m  u  n   i   t  y  r  e  v .  s   h  a  r  e   L  o  c  a   l   b  u  s   i  n  e  s  s   i  n  v  o   l  v  e
- NORTH AMERICA -U.S.
   1   0
 
x
 
x
 
x
 Canada
x
 
x
 
x
 
x
 
   1   5
 
x
 
x
 
x
 
x
 - LATIN AMERICA -Peru
x
 
   2   0
x xxx x x x x x xx
Argentina
   1   0
x xxxx x x x xx x
Chile
   1   5
x xxx x x xx x
Costa Rica
x x
   3
x xx x x x xx
Guatemala
x x x x xx
Belize
x xx x x
Ecuador
x x
Mexico
x
Columbia
x
 
   1   0
x x x xxx xxxx x x xx x
- AFRICA -Zambia
x x x
Botswana
x
 
x x
   1   5
xxx x
NamibiaSeychelles
x x
S. Africa
x
 
x
   2   0
x xx xx x x x xxxx
- AUSTRAILIA -Australia
x x
N. Zealand
x
 
x x x
   3   0
xx x x
Table 1. Summar of Tourism Concession Comonents

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