ResistivityiiTemperatureThermal emfCompositionMicro-ohmsOhms for Cir.CoefficientAgainst CopperPercentfor cm Cubemil Footper ºCµv/ ºC
Cu 84%Mn 12%44 µ
*Manganin shows zero effect from 20º to 30º C.
A GUIDE TO LOW RESISTANCE TESTING32A GUIDE TO LOW RESISTANCE TESTING
The quantitative study of electrical circuits originated in 1827,when Georg Simon Ohm published his famous book “Diegalvanische Kette, mathematisch bearbeitet” in which hegave his complete theory of electricity. In this seminal work,he introduced the relationship or “Law” that carries hisname:Resistance (R) = Voltage (E) / Current (I)At that time, the standards for Voltage, Current andResistance had not been developed. Ohm’s Law expressed thefact that the magnitude of the current flowing in a circuitdepended directly on the electrical forces or pressure andinversely on a property of the circuit known as the resistance.Obviously, however, he did not have units of the size of ourpresent volt, ampere, and ohm to measure these quantities.At this time, laboratories developed resistance elements,constructed of iron, copper or other available alloy materials.The laboratories needed stable alloys that could be movedfrom place to place to certify the measurements underreview. The standard for the ohm had to be temperaturestable and with minimum effects due to the materialconnected to the ohm standard.In 1861, a committee was established to develop a resistancestandard. This committee included a number of famous menwith whom we are now familiar, including James ClerkMaxwell, James Prescott Joule, Lord William Thomson Kelvinand Sir Charles Wheatstonei. In 1864, a coil of platinum-silveralloy wire sealed in a container filled with paraffin was usedas a standard. This was used for 20 years while studies weremade for a more reliable standard. These studies continued asthe old National Bureau of Standards (NBS), now known asthe National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),controlled the standard for the “OHM.” Today the industryuses Manganin alloy because it has a low temperaturecoefficient so that its resistance changes very little withtemperature (see figure 1). The table below from Melvin B.Stout’s “Basic Electrical Measurements” highlights the keyproperties of Manganin.The thermal emf against copper indicates the thermocoupleactivity of the material whereby a voltage is generated simplyby connecting two different metals together. The goal is tominimize thermocouple activity as it introduces error into themeasurement.With the metric system, the measurements are in meters andthe resistivity is determined for a one-meter cube of thematerial. However, more practical units are based on acentimeter cube. With the USA system, the resistivity isdefined in ohms per mil foot. The wire diameter is measuredin circular mils (0.001)2and the length in feet.Figure 1 shows the temperature-resistance curve forManganin wire at 20º C. For Manganin shunts, the 20°Ccurve shifts to 50º C, as this material will be operating at ahigher temperature due to the The Manganin alloy wasdesigned for use in coils used to perform stable measuringconditions at 20º C ambient room conditions. The alloy ismodified for strips of material used in measuring shunts,which operate at a higher ambient, up to 50º C.The purpose of this booklet is to help the engineer, technicianor operator:
Understand the rationale behind low resistancetesting.
Understand how to make a low resistancemeasurement.
Understand how to select the proper instrument for thetesting application.
Understand how to interpret and use the results.
WHY MEASURE LOW RESISTANCE?
Measuring low resistance helps identify resistance elementsthat have increased above acceptable values. The operation ofelectrical equipment depends on the controlled flow ofcurrent within the design parameters of the given piece ofequipment. Ohm’s Law dictates that for a specified energysource, operating on V ac or V dc, the amount of currentdrawn will be dependent upon the resistance of the circuit orcomponent.In the modern age of electronics, increased demands areplaced on all aspects of electrical circuitry. Years ago theability to measure 10 milli-ohms was acceptable, but, in thepresent industrial electronic environments, the field testengineer is now required to make measurements which showrepeatability within a few micro-ohms or less. These types ofmeasurements require the unique characteristics of a lowresistance ohmmeter’s four-wire test method, which iscovered on page 9 in this booklet.Low resistance measurements are required to prevent longterm damage to existing equipment and to minimize energywasted as heat. They indicate any restrictions in current flowthat might prevent a machine from generating its full poweror allow insufficient current to flow to activate protectivedevices in the case of a fault.Periodic tests are made to evaluate an initial condition or toidentify unexpected changes in the measured values, and thetrending of this data helps indicate and may forecast possiblefailure conditions. Excessive changes in measured values pointto the need for corrective action to prevent a major failure.When making field measurements, the operator ought tohave reference values that apply to the device being tested(the manufacturer should include this information in theliterature or name-plate supplied with the device). If the testsare a repeat of prior tests, then these records may also beused to observe the range of the anticipated measurements.If, when conducting tests, the operator records the resultsand the conditions under which the tests were performed,the information becomes the beginning of a database thatcan be used to identify any changes from fatigue, corrosion,vibration, temperature or other condition that may occur atthe test site.
What is a Low Resistance Measurement?
A low resistance measurement is typically a measurementbelow 1.000 ohm. At this level it is important to use testequipment that will minimize errors introduced by the testlead resistance and/or contact resistance between the probeand the material being tested. Also, at this level, standingvoltages across the item being measured (e.g. thermal emfsat junctions between different metals) may cause errors,which need to be identified.To allow a measurement to compensate the errors, a four-terminal measurement method is employed with a reversibletest current and a suitable Kelvin Bridge meter. Lowresistance ohmmeters are designed specifically for theseapplications. In addition the upper span on a number ofthese meters will range into kilohms, which covers the lowerranges of a Wheatstone Bridge (please see the appendix for adiscussion of the Wheatstone and Kelvin Bridge methods).The lower range on many low resistance ohmmeters willresolve 0.1 micro-ohms. This level of measurement is requiredto perform a number of low range resistance tests.
What Does the Low Resistance Measurement Tellthe Operator?
Resistance (R) is the property of a circuit or element thatdetermines, for a given current, the rate at which electricalenergy is converted to heat in accordance with the formulaW=I2R. The practical unit is the ohm. The low resistancemeasurement will indicate to the observant operator whendegradation has or is taking place within an electrical device.Changes in the value of a low resistance element are one ofthe best and quickest indications of degradation taking placebetween two contact points. Alternatively, readings can becompared to “like” test specimens. These elements include
R e s i s t a n c e R e s i s t a n c e
CWire CoilStrip - Shunt50C350
Figure 1: Qualitative Resistance-Temperature Curve for Manganiniii
i Swoope’s Lessons in Practical Electricity; Eighteenth Edition; Erich Hausmann, E.E., ScD.; page 111ii Swoope’s Lessons in Practical Electricity; Eighteenth Edition; Erich Hausmann, E.E., ScD.; page 118iii Basic Electrical Measurements; Melvin B. Stout; 1950; page 61