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AP Biology, Chapters Forty-One Thru Forty-Five - Animals, Guide

AP Biology, Chapters Forty-One Thru Forty-Five - Animals, Guide

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Published by Julie
A study guide about the structure and function of animals.
A study guide about the structure and function of animals.

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Published by: Julie on Mar 19, 2009
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1http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/AP Biology
Animal Function ReviewThis guide will be covering animal structure and function by reviewing 
:
 Major types of tissuesDigestion Circulation Respiration Defenses of the BodyHomeostasis/Excretion Endocrine System 
MAJOR TYPES OF ANIMAL TISSUETissuesTissuesTissuesTissues are groups of cells with a common structure and function. There are four main categories:epithelial tissue, connective tissue, nervous tissue, and muscle tissue.Epithelial tissueEpithelial tissueEpithelial tissueEpithelial tissue covers the outside of the body and lines organs and cavities within the body. Tightlypacked cells form a barrier protecting against mechanical injury, invasive microorganisms, and fluidloss. The cells at the base of the epithelium are attached to a basement membranebasement membranebasement membranebasement membrane, a mat of extracellular matrix. A simple epitheliumsimple epitheliumsimple epitheliumsimple epithelium has a single layer of cells, while a stratified epitheliumstratified epitheliumstratified epitheliumstratified epithelium hasmultiple layers of cells. The shape of the cells at the surface may be cuboidalcuboidalcuboidalcuboidal (cubes), columnarcolumnarcolumnarcolumnar(bricks), or squamoussquamoussquamoussquamous (floor tiles). Glandular epitheliaGlandular epitheliaGlandular epitheliaGlandular epithelia absorb or secrete chemical solutions. Theglandular epithelia lining the lumen of the digestive and respiratory tracts form a mucous membranemucous membranemucous membranemucous membraneby secreting mucus to lubricate the surface and keep it moist.Connective tissue functions to bind and support other tissues. They have a sparse population of cellsscattered through an extracellular matrix. Collagenous fibersCollagenous fibersCollagenous fibersCollagenous fibers are made of collagen – they arenonelastic and do not tear easily when pulled lengthwise. Elastic fibersElastic fibersElastic fibersElastic fibers are long threads made of elastin, which provides a rubbery quality. Reticular fibersReticular fibersReticular fibersReticular fibers, consisting of collagen, are very thin andbranched to form a tightly woven fabric. There are two main types of connective tissues found invertebrates:Loose connective tissueLoose connective tissueLoose connective tissueLoose connective tissue is the most widespread connective tissue. It binds epithelia tounderlying tissues and holds organs in place. It consists of all three fiber types.FibroblastsFibroblastsFibroblastsFibroblasts are cells that secrete the protein ingredients of the extracellular fibers andMMMMacrophagesacrophagesacrophagesacrophages are amoeboid cells that engulf bacteria and debris. These two types of cellspredominate in the mesh of loose connective tissue. Adipose tissueAdipose tissueAdipose tissueAdipose tissue is a specialized formof loose connective tissue that stores fat in adipose cells.Fibrous connective tissueFibrous connective tissueFibrous connective tissueFibrous connective tissue is dense and organized into parallel bundles. They are found intendonstendonstendonstendons and ligamentsligamentsligamentsligaments.CartilageCartilageCartilageCartilage has an abundance of collagenous fibers embedded in a rubbery matrix made of chondroitinsulfate. ChondrocytesChondrocytesChondrocytesChondrocytes are cells that secrete chondroitin sulfate and collagen. The skeleton
 
2http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/AP Biology
Animal Function Review
supporting the body of most vertebrates is made of bbbboneoneoneone, a mineralized connective tissue. BloodBloodBloodBlood canalso be classed as a connective tissue due to its extensive extracellular matrix.Nervous tissueNervous tissueNervous tissueNervous tissue senses stimuli and transmits signals from one part of the animal to the other. Theneuronneuronneuronneuron, or nerve cell, consists of a cell body and two or more extensions (dendrites and axons).Dendrites transmit impulses from their tips toward the rest of the neuron, while axons transmitimpulses toward another neuron or toward an effector.Muscle tissueMuscle tissueMuscle tissueMuscle tissue is composed of long cells called muscle fibers.Muscle is the most abundant tissue in most animals, withmuscle contraction accounting for most of the energy-consuming cellular work in an active animal. SkeletalSkeletalSkeletalSkeletalmusclemusclemusclemuscle is attached to bones by tendons and is responsiblefor voluntary movements of the body. Skeletal muscle canalso be called striated musclestriated musclestriated musclestriated muscle because the arrangement of overlapping filaments gives them a striated appearance.Cardiac muscleCardiac muscleCardiac muscleCardiac muscle forms the contractile wall of the heart.Smooth muscleSmooth muscleSmooth muscleSmooth muscle lacks striations and is found in the walls of the digestive tract, urinary bladder, arteries, and otherinternal organs.DIGESTIONHomeostasis Manages an Animal’s FuelGlucose, a major cellular fuel, is regulated depending on an organism’s current ATP needs. If there aremore calories taken in than are needed, the excess can be used for biosynthesis. In humans, energywill be stored as glycogen. Once glycogen stores are full, the excess can be stored as fat. If fewercalories are taken in than expended, fuel is oxidized, causing an animal to lose weight.UndernourishmentUndernourishmentUndernourishmentUndernourishment results when an organism is continually deficient in calories. When this occurs,the stores of glycogen and fat are used up, which causes the body to break down its own proteins forfuel. It is also dangerous to be ovovovovernourishedernourishedernourishedernourished when the body hoards fat. It tends to store excess fatmolecules from food instead of using them for fuel. In contrast, when an excess of carbohydrates areeaten, the body tends to increase the rate of carbohydrate oxidation.There seems to be a more-or-less constant weight for people set by the body, suggesting that thereare complex feedback mechanisms regulating fat storage and use. In mammals, increases in adiposetissue increases leptin levels in the blood. High leptin levels cue the brain to depress appetite andincrease energy-consuming muscular activity. Conversely, loss of body fat decreases leptin levels,signaling the brain to increase appetite and weight gain.
 
3http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/AP Biology
Animal Function Review
An Animal’s Diet Must Supply Essential Nutrients and Carbon Skeletons for BiosynthesisIn addition to providing fuel for ATP production, an animal’s diet must also supply the raw materialsnecessary for biosynthesis, such as carbon skeletons. Essential nutrientsEssential nutrientsEssential nutrientsEssential nutrients are materials that must beobtained in preassembled form because the animal’s cells cannot make them from
any 
raw material.An animal whose diet is missing one or more of the essential nutrients is said to be malnourishedmalnourishedmalnourishedmalnourished. Thefour types of essential nutrients are essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals:Essential amino acids:Essential amino acids:Essential amino acids:Essential amino acids: while the body can synthesize about half of the 20 amino acids, theremaining essential amino acids must be obtained from food in a prefabricated form. A dietwith insufficient amounts of one or more essential amino acids causes protein deficiency.Essential amino acids are found in meat, eggs, cheese, and other animal products. The onesfound in animal products are “complete,” meaning they provide all the essentials in theircorrect proportions. Those found in plant proteins tend to be “incomplete,” lacking one or moreessential amino acids.Essential fatty acidsEssential fatty acidsEssential fatty acidsEssential fatty acids: these consist of the fatty acids animals cannot make, such as fattyacids having double bonds. Most diets furnish ample qualities of essential fatty acids.VitaminsVitaminsVitaminsVitamins: organic molecules required in the diet in amounts that are small compared with therelatively large quantities of essential amino acids and fatty acids. So far, 13 vitamins havebeen determined to be essential to humans.MineralsMineralsMineralsMinerals: simple organic nutrients usually required in small amounts. Humans and vertebratesrequire relatively large amounts of calcium and phosphorus for maintaining bones. Otherminerals serve as cofactors for certain enzymes. Water-soluble vitamins include the B complexand Vitamin C. Fat-soluble vitamins are A, D, E, and K.Food Types and Feeding MechanismsAnimals generally fit into one of three dietary categories. HerbivoresHerbivoresHerbivoresHerbivores mainly eat autotrophs, whilecarnivorescarnivorescarnivorescarnivores eat other animals. OmnivoresOmnivoresOmnivoresOmnivores regularly consume animals as well as plants. These termsrepresent the kinds of food an animal usually eats and their adaptations for obtaining and processingthat food. However, most animals will eat foods outside their dietary category when available.Many aquatic animals are suspensionsuspensionsuspensionsuspension----feedersfeedersfeedersfeeders that sift small food particles from the water.SubstrateSubstrateSubstrateSubstrate----feedersfeedersfeedersfeeders live in or on their food source, eating their way through the food, such as maggots.Earthworms are a specific type of substrate-feeder – depositdepositdepositdeposit----feedersfeedersfeedersfeeders, which eat their way throughthe dirt, salvaging partially decayed organic material along with soil. FluidFluidFluidFluid----feedersfeedersfeedersfeeders suck nutrient-richfluids from a living host. Most animals are bulkbulkbulkbulk----feedersfeedersfeedersfeeders that eat relatively large pieces of food.Overview of Food ProcessingIngestionIngestionIngestionIngestion, the act of eating, is the first stage of food processing. Nearly all animals consume foodpackaged in bulk form, containing complex arrays of molecules that may be difficult to process.

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