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A Development of Neuro Expert System for DiagnosingPaddy Disease

A Development of Neuro Expert System for DiagnosingPaddy Disease

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Published by fairus
Paddy production has led to the development of economic growth to Malaysia, especially to the northern
states of Malaysia. Based on the statistical data from Muda Agricultural Development Authority
(MADA), the average of gross harvested production for the last 5 years is 4,687,636 metric tones. Due
to the whether, the vectors and insects can easily affect the paddy plant. Paddy diseases are major
biological constraints in rice production where more than 60 diseases are well described. The Neuro
Expert System for Diagnosing Paddy Disease is focused on the 2 types of diseases caused by fungus,
which are blast disease and sheath blast disease, criteria and common symptoms of the diseases in
MADA territory, and used the Case Based Reasoning (CBR) and Neural Network (NN) techniques. The
research uses the images of paddy leaves. Samples of infected leaves were captured and pre-processed
using the image processing toolbox in MATLABv7.0 and Adobe Photoshop. The neural network part of
this prototype uses the Lavenberg–Marquardt Backpropagation Neural Network to identify type of
diseases infected. While nearest matching algorithm has been chosen as the engine of the Case Based
Expert System.
Paddy production has led to the development of economic growth to Malaysia, especially to the northern
states of Malaysia. Based on the statistical data from Muda Agricultural Development Authority
(MADA), the average of gross harvested production for the last 5 years is 4,687,636 metric tones. Due
to the whether, the vectors and insects can easily affect the paddy plant. Paddy diseases are major
biological constraints in rice production where more than 60 diseases are well described. The Neuro
Expert System for Diagnosing Paddy Disease is focused on the 2 types of diseases caused by fungus,
which are blast disease and sheath blast disease, criteria and common symptoms of the diseases in
MADA territory, and used the Case Based Reasoning (CBR) and Neural Network (NN) techniques. The
research uses the images of paddy leaves. Samples of infected leaves were captured and pre-processed
using the image processing toolbox in MATLABv7.0 and Adobe Photoshop. The neural network part of
this prototype uses the Lavenberg–Marquardt Backpropagation Neural Network to identify type of
diseases infected. While nearest matching algorithm has been chosen as the engine of the Case Based
Expert System.

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01/01/2013

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Paper number: 3027987
 
A Development of Neuro Expert System for DiagnosingPaddy Disease
Azlin Ahmad
1
, Shamimi A.Halim
 
and
1
Norzaidah Md Noh
1
 
1
Faculty of Information Technology and Quantitative Science, Shah Alam{azlin, shamimi,norzaidah}@tmsk.uitm.edu.myABSTRACTPaddy production has led to the development of economic growth to Malaysia, especially to the northernstates of Malaysia. Based on the statistical data from Muda Agricultural Development Authority(MADA), the average of gross harvested production for the last 5 years is 4,687,636 metric tones. Dueto the whether, the vectors and insects can easily affect the paddy plant. Paddy diseases are major  biological constraints in rice production where more than 60 diseases are well described. The NeuroExpert System for Diagnosing Paddy Disease is focused on the 2 types of diseases caused by fungus,which are blast disease and sheath blast disease, criteria and common symptoms of the diseases inMADA territory, and used the Case Based Reasoning (CBR) and Neural Network (NN) techniques. Theresearch uses the images of paddy leaves. Samples of infected leaves were captured and pre-processedusing the image processing toolbox in MATLABv7.0 and Adobe Photoshop. The neural network part of this prototype uses the Lavenberg–Marquardt Backpropagation Neural Network to identify type of diseases infected. While nearest matching algorithm has been chosen as the engine of the Case BasedExpert System.Keywords: paddy disease, case based reasoning, backpropagation, image processing
1. INTRODUCTION
Paddy plantation is a major agricultural activity in Malaysia. According to MADA, the average gross of harvested production was 4,687,636 metric tones for the last five years. However, the processed producthas loss to 3,745,239 metric tones. This situation is due to several factors such as season. Basically inMalaysia, there are two production seasons, which are; i) main season which is hot and humid, and ii) off season which is hot and dry. These two different seasons have caused the vectors and insects affect the paddy plant easily. As a result, the paddy plant will easily infected by several diseases. Traditionally, thefarmers use manual approach in identifying the diseases assisted by MADA officer.This paper proposed a new approach that combines two different techniques which are NN and CBR.The paper is organized as follows. Section 2 and 3 would discuss paddy diseases in MADA area andrelated works in this field. In section 4, an appropriate approach and methodology for this research will beexplained. Section 5 would discuss about the finding and results of the research while in Section 6, therewould be some conclusion about the result.
2. PADDY DISEASE IN MADA AREA
Paddy diseases caused by fungus are numerous (Ou, 1972). Sheath Blight (Hawar Seludang), BacterialLeaf Blight (Hawar Daun), Bacterial Leaf Streak (Jalur Daun), Bakanea and Brown Spot (Bintik Perang)and Blast (Karah) are commonly diseases that can be found in the MADA area (Abdullah, 1991). Blastand sheath blight are the more serious fungus paddy diseases. Blast is an ancient disease of paddy and thesymptoms on the paddy plant include spots or lesion on leaves, nodes and branches. Bacterial leaf blightand leaf streak are diseases that most often attack at the leaf tip and rods, respectively. While bakanae
 
Paper number: 3027987
 
disease is cause by fungus Gibberella fujikuroi (Anderson
et al 
, 1999), the brown spot disease is caused byan air-borne fungus.
3. RELATED WORK 
The integration of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technique with agricultural field can be seen as a means of diversifying the usage of latest technology in respective area. Based on research carried out by Abdullah
et al 
(2007) from Faculty of Information Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, a FuzzyLogic approach has been used to handle the uncertainty and vagueness in order to identify the paddydisease. In this research, ten linguistic variables have been identified such as color and type of lesion,color of boundary and leaves, percentage of damages lesion and paddy age level.
4. METHODOLOGY 
This research involves several phases: preliminary studies, knowledge acquisition, knowledgerepresentation, image processing, feature extraction, algorithm adaptation, prototype design anddevelopment, testing and fine tuning.
4.1 Knowledge Acquisition and Representation
This phase started with data collection activity from several resources, including Lembaga KemajuanPertanian Muda (MADA) Ampang Jajar, Kedah, the domain expert from MADA, and huge number of literatures. The data collected from MADA includes the detail of paddy development in Malaysia, data onarea of paddy plants grown, harvest and products, types of diseases that affected in Muda territoryandsome images of infected paddy plants. Then, the data and knowledge were represented into the form of cases. Cases construction was done because it can represent the knowledge and manage to express therelation, recommendation, directive, strategies and heuristic of the cases. The basic structure of case-basedreasoning (CBR) is used to apply the expert system. It contains four cycles: retrieve, reuse, revise andretain. Some examples of the cases constructed are shown in the figure 1 below:
Figure 1:
Example of cases of paddy diseases
Case 1: Hawar Seludan-
 
 bintik-bintik padaseludang / upih daun-
 
 bintik-bintik membesar dan memanjang-
 
tompok-tompok  berwarna kekelabuandan perang disekelilingnya.Case 2: Bakanae-
 
anak pokok padi yanglebih tinggi dan daunnya berwarna pucat-
 
terdapat akar pada ruas-
 
anak padi akan mati satu persatuCase 3: Karah-
 
 bintik-bintik berbentuk lonjong dan tajam dihujungnya-
 
tengah daun berbintik warna kelabu/ keputihandan di tepi berwarnakemerahan-
 
 pokok akan musnah jikaserangan peringkatsemaianCase 4: Bintik Perang-
 
 bintik-bintik berbentuk  bijian berwarna perangdi tepi dan kelabu/keputihan di tengah, pada daun dan buah padi
 
Paper number: 3027987
 
4.2 Image Processing and Feature Extraction
This phase started when the images of the infected paddy plants were collected from several sources.Then, the images were preprocessed to make sure the images are ready for feature extraction. Thisdiagnosing system is applying the pattern recognition concept. Therefore, it is important to verify andidentify the exact variables which then will be the input for the system. The RGB value of the image wasidentified as the most suitable feature. This is because the major differences between the diseases are thecolor of the infected paddy leaves.
4.3 Backpropagation Neural Network (BPNN)
In the algorithm adaptation phase, BPNN was used in training the network. The training input patternswere presented to the network input layer. Then the network propagates the input pattern until the output pattern is generated by the output layer. Sigmoid function is used as the activation function of the neuralnetwork.
4.4
 
Prototype Design & Development
The process flow of the prototype is represented in the figure 2 below.
Figure 2
: Process flowFigure 3 below presents the research model of the prototype. The doted box represents the ExpertSystem Engine.
Home/ MainpageADMIN USERCreateRetrieveUpdateDeleteDatabaseAnswer QuestionsPaddy DiagnoseResult-Type of Paddy Disease& how to control itInformation of PaddyType of PaddyDiseaseType of Insect’sPest

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