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Physics Formulary - Wevers

Physics Formulary - Wevers

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Physics Formulary
By ir. J.C.A. Wevers
 
c
1995, 1999 J.C.A. Wevers Version: October 21, 1999Dear reader,Thisdocumentcontainsa108pageL
A
TEXfilewhichcontainsalotequationsinphysics. Itis writtenatadvancedundergraduate/postgraduatelevel. It is intendedto be a short referencefor anyonewho works with physics andoften needs to look up equations.This, and a Dutch version of this le, can be obtained from the author, Johan Wevers(
johanw@vulcan.xs4all.nl
).It can also be obtained on the WWW. See
http://www.xs4all.nl/˜johanw/index.html
, wherealso a Postscript version is available.If you find any errors or have any comments, please let me know. I am always open for suggestions andpossible corrections to the physics formulary.This document is Copyright 1995, 1998 by J.C.A. Wevers. All rights are reserved. Permission to use, copyand distribute this unmodified document by any means and for any purpose
except profit purposes
is herebygranted. Reproducing this document by any means, included, but not limited to, printing, copying existingprints, publishing by electronic or other means, implies full agreement to the above non-profit-use clause,unless upon explicit prior written permission of the author.This document is provided by the author “as is”, with all its faults. Any express or implied warranties, in-cluding, but not limited to, any implied warranties of merchantability, accuracy, or fitness for any particularpurpose, are disclaimed. If you use the information in this document, in any way, you do so at your own risk.The Physics Formulary is made with teTEX and L
A
TEX version 2.09. It can be possible that your L
A
TEX versionhas problemscompilingthe file. The most probablesourceof problemswould be the use of large bezier curvesand/or emTEX specials in pictures. If you want to use the notation in which vectors are typefaced in boldface,uncomment the redefinition of the
\
vec
command and recompile the file.Johan Wevers
 
Contents
Contents IPhysical Constants 11 Mechanics 2
1.1 Point-kinetics in a xed coordinate system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.1.1 Denitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.1.2 Polar coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.2 Relative motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.3 Point-dynamics in a xed coordinate system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.3.1 Force, (angular)momentumand energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.3.2 Conservative force elds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.3.3 Gravitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.3.4 Orbital equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.3.5 The virial theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.4 Point dynamics in a moving coordinate system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.4.1 Apparent forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.4.2 Tensor notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.5 Dynamics of masspoint collections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.5.1 The centre of mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.5.2 Collisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.6 Dynamics of rigid bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.6.1 Moment of Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.6.2 Principal axes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.6.3 Time dependence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.7 Variational Calculus, Hamilton and Lagrange mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.7.1 Variational Calculus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.7.2 Hamilton mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71.7.3 Motion around an equilibrium, linearization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71.7.4 Phase space, Liouvilles equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71.7.5 Generating functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2 Electricity & Magnetism 9
2.1 The Maxwell equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92.2 Force and potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92.3 Gauge transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102.4 Energy of the electromagnetic eld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102.5 Electromagnetic waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102.5.1 Electromagnetic waves in vacuum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102.5.2 Electromagnetic waves in matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112.6 Multipoles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112.7 Electric currents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112.8 Depolarizing eld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122.9 Mixtures of materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12I

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