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Table Of Contents

Functions and Organization of the Sales Force
Key sales and marketing functional activities
Roles and functions in the sales force
Sales functional activities
Typical job functions in a sales organization
The sales manager or sales director
The key account manager
The territory manager (or salesperson)
The merchandiser
Product promoters
Sales management qualities
Considerations in organizing the sales force
Sales structures and organization
Developing a structure
Geographical, horizontal, vertical factors
Management span of control
Other organizational considerations
Some typical evolving organization structures
Developing a basic structure
A geographically organized sales force
Trade sector specialization
Product specialization
Export department organization
Matrix organizations
What is motivation?
Why salespersons need motivation
Motivational management in the sales force
Motivational factors
Hierarchy of needs theory
Goal setting theory
Equity theory
Expectancy theory
Practical motivation
Job satisfaction
A framework for practical motivation
The manager’s motivational role
The manager’s leadership role
Motivation through involvement in deci- sion making
Checklist 3.1 Demotivators
Checklist 3.2 Practical motivation
Establishing a hierarchy of objectives
A hierarchy of objectives for retail products
Sales management by objectives
A hierarchy of objectives for industrial products
Managing to sales objectives
The basic principles of establishing objectives
Typical focus of sales objectives
Checklist 4.1 Establishing a heirarchy of objectives
Developing motivational rewards
The main options and their suitability
Motivating through rewards and incentives
Basic salary or wages
Stock options and profit sharing
Job perquisites
Incentive scheme principles
The role of appraisals
What to measure and appraise
Providing appraisals and feedback for motivation, training and discipline
Standards of performance
Skills and competencies
Subjective factors
Sources of appraisal information
Guidelines for managers operating an appraisal system
Developing an appraisal scheme
Giving feedback for motivation, appraisal, training and discipline
Formal feedback guidelines
Setting the scene
Planning for change
Feedback environment
Getting a commitment to change
Checklist 6.1 Feedback
The role and purpose of communications
Purpose and means of communicating
Communication in the sales force
Means of communicating
How to communicate
What to communicate
Essential information
Optional information
Whom to communicate with
Style of communications
Sales bulletins and other memoranda
Who communicates with the sales force
Frequency of communications
Sales bulletin content
Structure of sales bulletins
Audio, visual and computer media communications
Checklist 7.1 Communications
Organizing and running sales meetings
The purpose of meetings and conferences
Sales meeting organization
Sales meetings and conferences
Conducting sales meetings
Chairing the sales meeting
Communication aids
Making sales meeting presentations
The audience
The purpose
The subject matter
Structuring the presentation
Checklist 8.1 Organizing a meeting or conference
Checklist 8.2 Preparing a presentation for a meeting
Checklist 8.3 Structuring the presentation
Checklist 8.4 Practical tips on the presentation
Overview of the recruitment process and key steps
Qualities and skills of salespersons
Recruitment and selection in the sales force
Job descriptions and person specifications
Functions of a job description
Content and coverage of a job description
Sourcing applicants for sales positions
Job application forms
Guidelines for press advertisements
Coverage of advertisements
Screening applicants
Screening applicant interests
Communicating with unsuccessful applicants
Conducting interviews
The interview environment
Duration of the interview
Interview conduct and content
Format of the interview
The eight-point interview framework
Notes at interviews
The selection shortlist
Group selection tasks
Checking references
Making the selection
The role of training in the sales force
Why train?
Managing to key result areas
Basic sales training
The focus of sales training
Assessing the training needs
Typical coverage of sales training
Basic training programme coverage
Company knowledge
Product knowledge
Training in the selling process
Further considerations in industrial and business-to-business selling
Conducting group training sessions
Variety in effective training
Role playing
Closed circuit television in role playing
Films or videos
Feedback reviews and discussions
Printed handouts
Feedback reviews and discussions
Specialist training
Use of training consultants
Length of training courses
A typical induction training programme
Personal attitudes
Training stages
The training audit
Conducting field sales training
Priority training
A training framework
Training feedback
Judging the trainer’s effectiveness
Checklist 11.2 Guidelines for giving training feedback
Why plan?
Stages in the planning process
The planning process
Decision areas in strategy development
Inputs to market sales planning
Contributions to market planning
Historical market and performance data in planning
Key planning assumptions
Market size
Market dynamics
Organization changes
Parallel activity
Government regulations
Competitor activity
Socio-economic factors
Demographic factors
Terminology associated with sales forecasting
Sales forecasting
Planning time spans
What to forecast
Typical considerations in forecasting
Main methods of developing forecasts
Current demand
Total market potential
Industry sales and market shares
Multiple factor index method
Market build-up method
Future demand
Time series analysis
Statistical demand analysis
Market sales tests
Expert opinion
Marketers’ opinions
Surveys of future buying plans
Other considerations in forecasting
Seasonal trends
Cyclical trends
Product life cycles
Developing a practical market forecast
Information inputs for forecasting
Tabulating data and projecting trends in moving annual formats
moving annual data
Moving annual data
The ‘Z’ chart in monitoring performance
Forecasting from moving annual total data
Problems in using trend data based on past sales
Building forecasts from local market sales data
The importance of key accounts
Building targets for a larger customer base
Checklist 13.1 Forecasting and planning
Market share analysis
Monitoring profitability of sales activity
Monitoring salesperson performance
What to measure
Monitoring monthly sales against territory sales budgets
Continuous monitoring
Competitive benchmarking
Management of resources
Managing selling time
Sales activities
Territory management
Decision making
Decision making
Territory sales forecasting
Developing sales strategies
Territory call coverage and journey planning
Territory call coverage
Sales call rate
Journey planning principles
Journey cycle planning
Journey scheduling
Weekly journey plan
Segmenting a territory for coverage
Segmenting a territory for coverage: mapping
Cold call prospecting
Purpose of cold call prospecting
Sources of new prospects
Customer targeting
The questions in targeting customers
Surveying for outlets
Some special considerations in coverage planning
Van sales
Relief salespersons
The costs of selling
Basic administrative controls
Field sales administration
Sales office administration
Sales force administration
Customer call records
Daily activity reports
Using the daily activity report
Journey plans
Order forms
Credit notes and product uplift notes
Contact reports
The sales planning slip
Sales promotion control forms
Expense control form
Quotation forms
Guidelines for designing forms
Essential customer communications
●product price lists
Product price lists
Catalogues and brochures
Advertising and promotional programme information sheets
The need for control
Types of controls
Sales management control
Managing time
●salesperson use of time
Salesperson use of time
Sales manager’s time use analysis
Field controls
Identifying key result areas and setting performance standards
Sources of control data and performance information
Supplementary analysis
Sales performance league tables
Monitoring performance against territory sales target
Focusing performance measures on key result areas
Field checks or audits
Checklist 17.1 Management control and performance monitoring
Mapping trade channels
Trade development
Using trade channel data
The focus of value-adding activities
Practical ways to add value to wholesaler relations
Checklist 18.1 Trade channel mapping
Checklist 18.2 Trade terms and customer credit
Checklist 18.3 Managing wholesalers and trade distributors
Sales promotion
Using promotions in the marketing communications mix
Advantages of sales promotions
A decision-making framework for evaluating promotion options
Types of sales promotions
The advertising and promotion plan
Promotion planning
Setting promotion objectives
A promotional brief format
Evaluating and monitoring promotions
Key account promotional activity
Guidelines for developing promotional materials
Financing advertising and promotions
Advertising reserves
Spend in the marketing mix
Exhibition objectives
Which exhibition?
Exhibition planning
Exhibition follow-up
Checklist 19.1 Basic promotion planning
Checklist 19.2 Promotion formats
Checklist 19.3 Exhibition planning
The importance of merchandising
Merchandising at the point of sale
Merchandising in the sales call
On-shelf display
Off-shelf feature displays
Point of sale material
Use of point of sale material by the salesperson
The stages in key account management
Trade channel mapping
Key account management
Developing key account profiles
Getting to know the buyer
Establishing relationships
Building relationships within key accounts
Contacts to develop and follow up with
Supporting relationships with a value-adding approach to account management
Account penetration and development
Agreeing a modus operandi for account management
Key account negotiating
Typical pattern to the annual round of negotiations
Follow-up to negotiations
Follow-up with retail accounts
Follow-up with industrial and commercial key accounts
Category management
What is category management?
The supplying company’s role
The key account manager’s role
Developing the product category
The buyer and category management
Checklist 21.4 Building relations with key accounts
Telephone selling
Cold call canvassing
Alternative sales or distribution operations
Emergency contact with customers
Coverage of small accounts or geographically remote customers
Tele-ordering for regular repeat product orders
Promotional thrusts focusing on special activity
Customer satisfaction research
Other customer-oriented marketing research
Wholesalers, distributors, brokers and agents
Wholesalers and distributors
Brokers and agents
Customer contact
Agreements with agents and distributors
Other ordering or distribution methods
Exclusive retail stockists
Postal orders
Direct mail campaigns
Mail order catalogues
Computer ordering
Direct home distributors – network marketing
Checklist 22.1 Alternative methods of generating sales
How the company benefits from exporting
The broader international opportunities
Developing international markets
The export sales manager
Role of the export sales manager
Skills in the international marketer
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0750633611 Sales Management

0750633611 Sales Management

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Published by Yashwanth Kasturi

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Published by: Yashwanth Kasturi on Apr 05, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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