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A History of Science (Volume 2)

A History of Science (Volume 2)

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Published by: alexandras12 on Mar 19, 2009
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05/29/2014

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A HISTORY OF SCIENCE
BY HENRY SMITH WILLIAMS, M.D., LL.D.ASSISTED BY EDWARD H. WILLIAMS, M.D.
 
IN FIVE VOLUMESVOLUME II.
 
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History of Science II
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2
CONTENTSBOOK IICHAPTER I. SCIENCE IN THE DARK AGECHAPTER II. MEDIAEVAL SCIENCE AMONG THE ARABIANSCHAPTER III. MEDIAEVAL SCIENCE IN THE WESTCHAPTER IV. THE NEW COSMOLOGY--COPERNICUS TO KEPLER AND GALILEOCHAPTER V. GALILEO AND THE NEW PHYSICSCHAPTER VI. TWO PSEUDO-SCIENCES--ALCHEMY AND ASTROLOGYCHAPTER VII. FROM PARACELSUS TO HARVEYCHAPTER VIII. MEDICINE IN THE SIXTEENTH AND SEVENTEENTH CENTURIESCHAPTER IX. PHILOSOPHER-SCIENTISTS AND NEW INSTITUTIONS OF LEARNINGCHAPTER X. THE SUCCESSORS OF GALILEO IN PHYSICAL SCIENCECHAPTER XI. NEWTON AND THE COMPOSITION OF LIGHTCHAPTER XII. NEWTON AND THE LAW OF GRAVITATIONCHAPTER XIII. INSTRUMENTS OF PRECISION IN THE AGE OF NEWTONCHAPTER XIV. PROGRESS IN ELECTRICITY FROM GILBERT AND VON GUERICKE TO FRANKLINCHAPTER XV. NATURAL HISTORY TO THE TIME OF LINNAEUSAPPENDIX
 
History of Science II
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3
A HISTORY OF SCIENCEBOOK IITHE BEGINNINGS OF MODERN SCIENCEThe studies of the present book cover the progress of sciencefrom the close of the Roman period in the fifth century A.D. toabout the middle of the eighteenth century. In tracing the courseof events through so long a period, a difficulty becomesprominent which everywhere besets the historian in less degree--adifficulty due to the conflict between the strictly chronologicaland the topical method of treatment. We must hold as closely aspossible to the actual sequence of events, since, as alreadypointed out, one discovery leads on to another. But, on the otherhand, progressive steps are taken contemporaneously in thevarious fields of science, and if we were to attempt to introducethese in strict chronological order we should lose all sense oftopical continuity.Our method has been to adopt a compromise, following the courseof a single science in each great epoch to a convenientstopping-point, and then turning back to bring forward the storyof another science. Thus, for example, we tell the story ofCopernicus and Galileo, bringing the record of cosmical andmechanical progress down to about the middle of the seventeenthcentury, before turning back to take up the physiologicalprogress of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Once thelatter stream is entered, however, we follow it without

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