Let us begin by looking at how Shabbos is presented in the two versions of the
the Torah introduces Shabbos by saying
"xekfmei z`"eycwl zayd
– “Remember the Shabbos to sanctify it.” In contrast, in Parshat Va’Etchanan, the Torah introduces Shabbos by saying
"xeny"eycwl zayd mei z`
which means “Guard the Shabbosto sanctify it.” What is the essential difference between
expresses theimperative to observe Shabbos in an active way, through a
i.e. the Mitzvah of recitingKiddush on Friday night.
, on the other hand, expresses the imperative to observe Shabbosin a passive way, through a
dyr `l zevn
i.e. - refraining from engaging in
elaborates further on the difference between these two phrases and explains that
relate to two different emotional modes of serving Hashem.
, which is a
,expresses the requirement to serve Hashem out of love -
which is a
, expresses the requirement to serve Hashem out of fear -
Accordingly, Shabbosembodies two emotional postures in our service of Hashem - love of Hashem and fear of Hashem.
III. Two Viewpoints of Shabbos
Let us raise the following question: What is the relationship between these two parts of Shabbos-
? We can view their interrelationship in a number of ways.1) The primary
of Shabbos is
- i.e. refraining from
, of kiddush, is of secondary importance and its main purpose is to remind usthat Shabbos has begun and that Shabbos is a holy day which requires abstentionfrom
.Alternatively, we can suggest that -2) The primary
of Shabbos is
- i.e. reciting kiddush and sanctifying theday. The
, is of secondary importance and its mainpurpose is to enable us to create an atmosphere conducive to
- to holiness.
According to the first perspective,
is primarily a day that is suffused with
, since thedominant Mitzvah is a
). Also, we are essentially passive participants in the day of Shabbos. Our role is to maintain the integrity of the day and not profane it. We grow spirituallyas a result of merely encountering
, whose presence is acutely felt as expressed by theholiness of Shabbos.
f :k zeny ,dxezd lr o"anx
ok mb `ed zn`edad`d zcnn `veid `ede ,dyr zevna efnx xekf zcin ikel aed` eipec` zevn dyerd ik ,mingxd zcnl `ede.eilr mgxn eipec`e,dyrz `l zevna xeny zcneoicd zcnl `eded`xid zcinn `veie`xi eipec` ipira rxd xac zeyrn xnypd ik ,
3. See Pachad Yitzchak, Shabbos who cites this Ramban and delves into this idea further.4.We can also suggest that each is its own independent Mitzvah and each is of equal importance in our observanceof Shabbos. Observing each one independently creates the totality of the Shabbos experience. We will relate tothis point later.