Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more ➡
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Add note
Save to My Library
Sync to mobile
Look up keyword
Like this
0Activity
×
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Increased In Situ Remediation Efficacy with an Innovative Injection

Increased In Situ Remediation Efficacy with an Innovative Injection

Ratings: (0)|Views: 30|Likes:
Published by ZEBRA ENVIRONMENTAL
Increased In Situ Remediation Efficacy with an Innovative Injection
Technology
Patrick Hicks (patrickh@onthewavefront.com) (Wavefront, Raleigh, North Carolina),
and Brad Carlson (brad@ZEBRAenv.com) (ZEBRA Environmental
Increased In Situ Remediation Efficacy with an Innovative Injection
Technology
Patrick Hicks (patrickh@onthewavefront.com) (Wavefront, Raleigh, North Carolina),
and Brad Carlson (brad@ZEBRAenv.com) (ZEBRA Environmental

More info:

categoriesTypes, Research
Published by: ZEBRA ENVIRONMENTAL on Apr 06, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See More
See less

04/06/2013

pdf

text

original

 
 
ZEBRA ENVIRONMENTAL / WAVEFRONT | Contact Pat Hicks or Brad Carlson 1-800-PROBE-IT
Increased In Situ Remediation Efficacy with an Innovative Injection Technology
Patrick Hicks
(patrickh@onthewavefront.com) (Wavefront, Raleigh, North Carolina),and Brad Carlson (brad@ZEBRAenv.com) (ZEBRA Environmental Corp, Lynbrook, New York,USA)
ABSTRACT:
The authors recently used the Primawave technology on two separate injectionprojects in central Florida. Shallow, open aquifers often result in blow-by where the injectedremedial material flows up to the surface around the injection rods. This phenomenon greatlyreduces remedial efficacy, and can result in substantial project disruption. Problematic blow-bywas eliminated at the first injection site using the Primawave technology. The number of successful injection points, and the average amount of injected material increased dramaticallyupon implementation of the Primawave technology. A second project used the Primawavetechnology for uniform delivery, and a very favorable remediation response was measured postinjection. Primawave maximized injection efficiency and minimized project costs. The resultsof groundwater monitoring events following the injection showed a very good response asindicated by reduced dissolved contaminant concentrations in the treated area. Primawave wasused at these two sites as a surface-mounted system for direct push rods, but can be used withinjection wells also. Primawave generates a fluid pressure pulse through the injected productthat causes momentary increase in the effective porosity. The pressure pulse moves fluid into theaquifer more effectively and potentially decreasing the blow-by effect.
INTRODUCTION
 The Primawave technology has been developed to enhance fluid flow into saturatedporous media. The basis of the technology has been applied for many years in the oilfield toenhance crude recovery processes, and has recently been adapted to environmental applications.Aggressive pressure pulsing applied to liquids introduced into a porous media can improve flowrates by momentarily increasing effective porosity and dilating pore throat openings to fluidflow. The frequency of the pressure pulse must be modulated to site-specific aquifer conditionsto maximize flow and distribution of the injected fluid. Properly modulated pressure pulsefrequency temporarily overcomes restrictive capillary forces that would not allow for fluid flowunder traditional delivery methods with non-modulated pulsing.A surface-mounted positive displacement device designed to provide a sharp impulse hasbeen developed to capitalize on the favorable response to pulsing. The tool generates a fluidpressure wave that propagates out from the injection point through the material being injected.With each pulse, the pressure wave induces a small, momentary dilation of the effective porethroat, which leads to acceleration of the liquids into and out of the pores as the wave passes. Itis the minute accelerations that promote fluid flow and migration into pores that would otherwisenot accept the injected fluid.
 
 
ZEBRA ENVIRONMENTAL / WAVEFRONT | Contact Pat Hicks or Brad Carlson 1-800-PROBE-IT
 The Primawave tooling can be implemented via fluid injection via traditional injectionwells or direct push rods. The technology has been used to enhance recovery of Non-AqueousPhase Liquid (NAPL), and for injection of a wide spectrum of remediation products andmaterials. The technology has been applied to water or surfactant flooding for NAPL recoveryto aid in the mobilization of residual free product. Primawave has also enhanced injection of chemical oxidants, electron donors/receivers, acid neutralizers and bentonite slurry. Theinjection process has been shown to be substantially improved with Primawave by increasedinjection rates and reduced incidence of blow-by and day-lighting. Similarly, evidence has beencollected that indicates Primawave results in greater injection efficacy by improving contactvolume in the targeted treatment zone.
Project History and Background
 The Primawave technology was applied at two sites in central Florida in 2008 during thecourse of in situ treatment via chemical oxidation. The first site (Site One) was a highly activeretail Underground Storage Tank (UST) facility, and the second (Site Two) was a former USTfacility that had been converted into a municipal facility with substantial public use. Lithologicdescriptions for Site One indicated a relatively uniform medium to coarse sand textured aquifer,with depth to water being relatively stable approximately 1 meter below ground surface (BGS).Lithologic conditions at Site Two included a mixed sand and silty-clay textured aquifer withsome clay lenses. The depth to water was historically highly variable, which resulted in a thickercontaminated zone on the vertical profile. In addition, the targeted treatment area at Site Twocontained active underground utilities and sensitive landscaping that could not be disturbedduring remediation.In situ chemical oxidation designs for both sites included injection of a commercialproduct through direct push rods, and the Primawave technology was used to increase theefficiency and efficacy of the injection process. Site One treatment design was focused on aformer UST location at the active retail facility which was situated adjacent to the store entrance. The active tanks had been relocated during an earlier facility renovation. Previous investigationresults indicated a high probability that residual petroleum product mass remained in the vicinityof the former UST pit, and this mass was contributing to on-going dissolved concentrations of Benzene, Ethylbezene, Toluene and Xylenes (BTEX) in the groundwater beneath the facility. The exact amount of residual petroleum could not be accurately measured due to limited accessto that portion of the facility. Previous remediation attempts had not been successful inaddressing the residual petroleum mass, and dissolved BTEX concentrations rebounded afterseveral treatment events. An estimate of the residual mass was used to design the chemicaloxidant loading, which was 832 liters of oxidant fluid injected over a 3 meter vertical profilefrom approximately 1 to 4.5 meters BGS. A total of 20 injection points spaced approximately 3to 4 meters apart were used to distribute the chemical oxidant throughout the treatment areawhich comprised approximately 183 square meters. This was an aggressive treatment designedto oxidize the residual petroleum product with 3 consecutive injection events spaced overapproximately 60 days. A fourth injection was subsequently performed with the Primawavetechnology in efforts to achieve a successful event.Site Two treatment design also focused on a former UST location that had much lessresidual petroleum product remaining after previous remedial efforts. A dual treatmenttechnology application was implemented at Site Two consisting of an aggressive chemicaloxidation followed by a long-term enhanced aerobic bioremediation component. The chemical
 
 
ZEBRA ENVIRONMENTAL / WAVEFRONT | Contact Pat Hicks or Brad Carlson 1-800-PROBE-IT
oxidant and slow-release terminal electron acceptor products were injected simultaneously toboth minimize disruption to the facility and control project cost. An estimate of the adsorbedand dissolved BTEX mass was used to design the oxidant and electron acceptor loading, whichwas 1,890 liters to 2,268 liters of fluid, injected over a 7.5 meter vertical profile fromapproximately 3 to 10.7 meters BGS. A total of 13 to 16 injection points spaced approximately 3to 4 meters apart were used to distribute the remediation fluids throughout the treatment areawhich comprised approximately 125 square meters. This treatment design also included 3consecutive injection events spaced over 60 days.
Results and Discussion
 The Primawave technology substantially increased the efficiency of remedial injection atSite One. The first three injection events were relatively unsuccessful in terms of introducing thechemical oxidant product into the targeted area within the aquifer. Attempts to inject thechemical oxidant at Site One without Primawave resulted in blow-by and day-lighting, whichbecame problematic due to pedestrian and vehicular traffic at the facility. The number of failedinjection points was substantially reduced and the amount of fluid injected was substantiallyincreased when the Primawave technology was applied during the fourth injection event. Therelative blow-by incidence with and without Primawave is depicted in Figure 1.
Figure 1. Percent of injection points that failed due to blow-by with and withoutPrimawave.
It should also be noted that the incidence of day-lighting of the chemical oxidant either throughopenings in the paved surface or former injection locations was also substantially reduced during
051015202530354045501 2 3 4
Injection
 
Event
    P   r   o     d   u   c    t    S   u   r     f   a   c     i   n   g    (     f   a     i     l   u   r   e    /     i   n     j   e   c    t     i   o   n    )    %
    N   o   n
       ‐
    P   r     i   m   a   w   a   v   e    I   n     j   e   c    t     i   o   n    N   o   n
       ‐
    P   r     i   m   a   w   a   v   e    I   n     j   e   c    t     i   o   n    N   o   n
       ‐
    P   r     i   m   a   w   a   v   e    I   n     j   e   c    t     i   o   n    P   r     i   m   a   w   a   v   e    I   n     j   e   c    t     i   o   n
051015202530354045501 2 3 4
Injection
 
Event
    P   r   o     d   u   c    t    S   u   r     f   a   c     i   n   g    (     f   a     i     l   u   r   e    /     i   n     j   e   c    t     i   o   n    )    %
 
    N   o   n
       ‐
    P   r     i   m   a   w   a   v   e    I   n     j   e   c    t     i   o   n    N   o   n
       ‐
    P   r     i   m   a   w   a   v   e    I   n     j   e   c    t     i   o   n    N   o   n
       ‐
    P   r     i   m   a   w   a   v   e    I   n     j   e   c    t     i   o   n    P   r     i   m   a   w   a   v   e    I   n     j   e   c    t     i   o   n

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->