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Divide and Conquer

Divide and Conquer

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Divide-and-Conquer1
Divide-and-Conquer
7 2
9 4
2 4 7 97
2
2 79
4
4 97
72
29
94
4
Divide-and-Conquer2
Outline and Reading
Divide-and-conquer paradigm (§5.2)Review Merge-sort (§4.1.1)Recurrence Equations (§5.2.1)
Iterative substitution
Recursion trees
Guess-and-test
The master method
Integer Multiplication (§5.2.2)
Divide-and-Conquer3
Divide-and-Conquer
Divide-and conqueris ageneral algorithm designparadigm:
Divide: divide the input data
 S 
intwo or more disjoint subsets
 S 
1
 , S 
2
, …
Recur: solve the subproblemsrecursively
Conquer: combine the solutionsfor
 S 
1
 , S 
2
, …, into a solution for
 S 
The base case for therecursion are subproblems of constant size Analysis can be done using
recurrence equations
Divide-and-Conquer4
Merge-Sort Review
Merge-sort on an inputsequence
 S 
with
n
elements consists of three steps:
Divide: partition
 S 
intotwo sequences
 S 
1
and
 S 
2
of about
n
/
2
elementseach
Recur: recursively sort
 S 
1
and
 S 
2
Conquer: merge
 S 
1
and
 S 
2
into a unique sortedsequence
Algorithm
mergeSort 
(
 S, C 
)
Input
sequence
 S 
with
n
elements, comparator 
Output
sequence
 S 
sortedaccording to
if 
S.size
()
>
1(
 S 
1
,
 S 
2
)
partition
(
 S 
,
n
/2)
mergeSort 
(
 S 
1
,
)
mergeSort 
(
 S 
2
,
)
 S 
merge
(
 S 
1
,
2
)
Divide-and-Conquer5
Recurrence Equation Analysis
The conquer step of merge-sort consists of merging two sortedsequences, each with
n
/
2
elements and implemented by means of a doubly linked list, takes at most
bn
steps, for some constant
b
.Likewise, the basis case (
n
< 2)
will take at
b
most steps.Therefore, if we let
(
n
)
denote the running time of merge-sort:We can therefore analyze the running time of merge-sort byfinding a
closed form solution
to the above equation.
That is, a solution that has
(
n
)
only on the left-hand side.
+<=
2if )2/(2 2if )(
nbnn nbn
Divide-and-Conquer6
Iterative Substitution
In the iterative substitution, or “plug-and-chug,” technique, weiteratively apply the recurrence equation to itself and see if we canfind a pattern:Note that base, T(n)=b, case occurs when 2
i
=n. That is, i = log n.So,Thus, T(n) is O(n log n).
ibnnbnnbnnbnnbnnbn bnnn
ii
+==+=+=+=++=+=
)2/(2 ...4)2/(2 3)2/(2 2)2/(2 ))2/())2/(2(2 )2/(2)(
4433222
nbnbnn
log)(
+=
 
Divide-and-Conquer7
The Recursion Tree
Draw the recursion tree for the recurrence relation and look forapattern:
sizeT’sdepth
n
/
2
2
n
/
221
n
10
+<=
2if )2/(2 2if )(
nbnn nbn
time
bnbnbn
Total time =
bn
+
bn
log
n
(last level plus all previous levels)
Divide-and-Conquer8
Guess-and-Test Method
In the guess-and-test method, we guess a closed form solutionand then try to prove it is true by induction:Guess: T(n) < cnlog n.Wrong: we cannot make this last line be less than cn log n
nbncnncn nbnncn nbnnnc nbnnn
logloglog)2log(log log))2/log()2/((2 log)2/(2)(
+=+=+=+=
+<=
2if log)2/(2 2if )(
nnbnn nbn
Divide-and-Conquer9
Guess-and-Test Method,Part 2
Recall the recurrence equation:Guess #2: T(n) < cnlog
2
n.
if c > b.
So, T(n) is O(n log
2
n).In general, to use this method, you need to have a good guessand you need to be good at induction proofs.
ncnnbncnncnncn nbnncn nbnnnc nbnnn
2222
logloglog2log log)2log(log log))2/(log)2/((2 log)2/(2)(
++= +=+=+=
+<=
2if log)2/(2 2if )(
nnbnn nbn
Divide-and-Conquer10
Master Method
Many divide-and-conquer recurrence equations havethe form:The Master Theorem:
+<=
nn f  bnaT  ncn
if )()/( if )(
.1somefor )()/(  provided  )),((is)(then),(is)(if  3. )log(is)(then),log(is)(if  2. )(is)(then),(is)(if  1.
log1loglogloglog
<ΘΘΘΘ
++
δ  δ  
ε ε 
n f  bnaf   n f  nnn f   nnnnnn f   nnnOn f  
aaaaa
bbbbb
Divide-and-Conquer11
Master Method, Example 1
The form:The Master Theorem:Example:
+<=
nn f  bnaT  ncn
if )()/( if )(
.1somefor )()/(  provided  )),((is)(then),(is)(if  3. )log(is)(then),log(is)(if  2. )(is)(then),(is)(if  1.
log1loglogloglog
<ΘΘΘΘ
++
δ  δ  
ε ε 
n f  bnaf   n f  nnn f   nnnnnn f   nnnOn f  
aaaaa
bbbbb
nnn
+=
)2/(4)(
Solution: log
b
a=2, so case 1 says T(n) is O(n
2
).
Divide-and-Conquer12
Master Method, Example 2
The form:The Master Theorem:Example:
+<=
nn f  bnaT  ncn
if )()/( if )(
.1somefor )()/(  provided  )),((is)(then),(is)(if  3. )log(is)(then),log(is)(if  2. )(is)(then),(is)(if  1.
log1loglogloglog
<ΘΘΘΘ
++
δ  δ  
ε ε 
n f  bnaf   n f  nnn f   nnnnnn f   nnnOn f  
aaaaa
bbbbb
nnnn
log)2/(2)(
+=
Solution: log
b
a=1, so case 2 says T(n) is O(n log
2
n).
 
Divide-and-Conquer13
Master Method, Example 3
The form:The Master Theorem:Example:
+<=
nn f  bnaT  ncn
if )()/( if )(
.1somefor )()/(  provided  )),((is)(then),(is)(if  3. )log(is)(then),log(is)(if  2. )(is)(then),(is)(if  1.
log1loglogloglog
<ΘΘΘΘ
++
δ  δ  
ε ε 
n f  bnaf   n f  nnn f   nnnnnn f   nnnOn f  
aaaaa
bbbbb
nnnn
log)3/()(
+=
Solution: log
b
a=0, so case 3 says T(n) is O(n logn).
Divide-and-Conquer14
Master Method, Example 4
The form:The Master Theorem:Example:
+<=
nn f  bnaT  ncn
if )()/( if )(
.1somefor )()/(  provided  )),((is)(then),(is)(if  3. )log(is)(then),log(is)(if  2. )(is)(then),(is)(if  1.
log1loglogloglog
<ΘΘΘΘ
++
δ  δ  
ε ε 
n f  bnaf   n f  nnn f   nnnnnn f   nnnOn f  
aaaaa
bbbbb
2
)2/(8)(
nnn
+=
Solution: log
b
a=3, so case 1 says T(n) is O(n
3
).
Divide-and-Conquer15
Master Method, Example 5
The form:The Master Theorem:Example:
+<=
nn f  bnaT  ncn
if )()/( if )(
.1somefor )()/(  provided  )),((is)(then),(is)(if  3. )log(is)(then),log(is)(if  2. )(is)(then),(is)(if  1.
log1loglogloglog
<ΘΘΘΘ
++
δ  δ  
ε ε 
n f  bnaf   n f  nnn f   nnnnnn f   nnnOn f  
aaaaa
bbbbb
3
)3/(9)(
nnn
+=
Solution: log
b
a=2, so case 3 says T(n) is O(n
3
).
Divide-and-Conquer16
Master Method, Example 6
The form:The Master Theorem:Example:
+<=
nn f  bnaT  ncn
if )()/( if )(
.1somefor )()/(  provided  )),((is)(then),(is)(if  3. )log(is)(then),log(is)(if  2. )(is)(then),(is)(if  1.
log1loglogloglog
<ΘΘΘΘ
++
δ  δ  
ε ε 
n f  bnaf   n f  nnn f   nnnnnn f   nnnOn f  
aaaaa
bbbbb
1)2/()(
+=
nn
Solution: log
b
a=0, so case 2 says T(n) is O(log n).(binary search)
Divide-and-Conquer17
Master Method, Example 7
The form:The Master Theorem:Example:
+<=
nn f  bnaT  ncn
if )()/( if )(
.1somefor )()/(  provided  )),((is)(then),(is)(if  3. )log(is)(then),log(is)(if  2. )(is)(then),(is)(if  1.
log1loglogloglog
<ΘΘΘΘ
++
δ  δ  
ε ε 
n f  bnaf   n f  nnn f   nnnnnn f   nnnOn f  
aaaaa
bbbbb
nnn
log)2/(2)(
+=
Solution: log
b
a=1, so case 1 says T(n) is O(n).(heap construction)
Divide-and-Conquer18
Iterative “Proof” of theMaster Theorem
Using iterative substitution, let us see if we can find a pattern:We then distinguish the three cases as
The first term is dominant
Each part of the summation is equally dominant
The summation is a geometric series
==
+=+==+++= ++=++=+=
1)(log0log1)(log0log2233 222
)/()1( )/()1( ...)()/()/()/( )()/()/( ))/())/(( )()/()(
niiianiiin
bbbb
bn f  an bn f  aa n f  bnaf  bn f  abna n f  bnaf  bna bnbn f  bnaT a n f  bnaT n

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