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Alan Brinkley American History Chapter 32 Outline

Alan Brinkley American History Chapter 32 Outline



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Melany E. Jon-Medinaperiod 4
Chapter 32: The Crisis of AuthorityThe Youth Culture
The New Left 
 The postwar baby-boom generation, the unprecedented number of people born in a few years just after World War II, was growingup.
One of the most visible results of the increasingly assertive youthmovement was a radicalization of many American college anduniversity students, who in the course of the 1960s formed whatbecame known as the New Left- a large, diverse group of menand women energized by the polarizing developments of theirtime to challenge the political system.
 The New Left embraced the cause of African Americans and otherminorities, but its own ranks consisted overwhelmingly of whitepeople.
 The New Left drew from many sources.
 The New Left drew as well from the writings of some of the importantsocial critics of the 1950s-among them C. Wright Mills, a sociologist at Columbia University who wrote a series of scathing andbrilliant critiques of modern bureaucracies.
 The New Left drew its inspiration above all from the civil rightsmovement, in which many idealistic young white Americans hadbecome involved in the early 1960s.
In 1962, a group of students, most of them from prestigiousuniversities, gathered in Michigan to form an organization to givevoice to their demands: Students for a Democratic Society (SDS).
A 1964 dispute at the University of California at Berkeley over therights of students to engage in political activities on campusgained national attention.
 The Free Speech Movement, created turmoil at Berkeley as studentschallenged campus police, occupied administrative offices, andproduced a strike in which nearly ¾ of the Berkeley studentsparticipated.
 The revolt at Berkeley was the first outburst of what was to be nearly
a decade of campus turmoil.
Also in 1969, Berkeley became the scene of perhaps the mostprolonged and traumatic conflict of any American collegecampus in the 1960s: a battle over the efforts of a few studentsto build a “People’s Park” on a vacant lot the university plannedto use to build a parking garage.
By the end of the People’s Park battle, which lasted for more than aweek, the Berkeley campus was completely polarized.
Student radicals were, for the20first time, winning large audiences fortheir extravagant rhetoric linking together universityadministrators, the police, and the larger political and economicsystem, describing them all as part of one united, oppressiveforce.
As time went on, moreover, the student fringe groups becameincreasingly militant.
Student activists tried to drive out training programs for militaryofficers (ROTC) and bar military recruiters from collegecampuses.
 The October 1967 march on the Pentagon, where demonstrators weremet by a solid line of armed troops; the “spring mobilization” of April 1968, which attracted hundreds of thousands of demonstrators in cities around the country.
Many draft-age Americans simply refused induction, accepting whatoccasionally what were long terms in jail as a result.
The Counterculture
 The most visible characteristic of the counterculture was a change inlifestyle.
 Young Americans flaunted long hair, shabby or flamboyant clothing,and a rebellious disdain for traditional speech and decorum,which they replaced with their own “hippie” idiom.
Also central to the counterculture were drugs: marijuana smoking-which after 1966 became almost as common a youthful diversionas b eer drinking-and the less widespread but still substantial useof other, more potent hallucinogens, such as LSD.
 To some degree, the emergence of more relaxed approaches tosexuality was a result less of the counterculture than of the newaccessibility of effective contraceptives, most notably the birth-
control pill and, after 1973, legalized abortion.
 The counterculture’s rejection of traditional values and its openembrace of sensual pleasure sometimes masked its philosophy,which offered a fundamental challenge to the American middle-class mainstream.
 The most adherents of the counterculture-the hippies, who came todominate the Haight-Ashbury neighborhood of San Francisco andother places, and the social dropouts, many of whom retreated torural communes-rejected modern society altogether andattempted to find refuge in a simpler, more “natural” existence.
 Theodore Roszak, whose book the Making of a Counter Culture(1969)became a significant document of the era, captured much of thespirit of the movement in his frank admission that “the primaryproject of our counterculture is to proclaim a new heaven and anew earth so vast, so marvelous that the inordinate claims of technical expertise must of necessity withdraw to a subordinateand marginal status in the lives of men.”
 The use of marijuana, the freer attitudes toward sex, the iconoclastic(and sometimes obscene) language- all spread far beyond therealm of the true devotes of the counterculture.
Rock n Roll first achieved wide popularity in the 1950s, on thestrength of such early performers as Buddy Holly and ElvisPresley.
Early in the 1960s, its influence began to spread, a result in large partof the phenomenal popularity of the Beatles, the English groupwhose first visit to the United States in 1964 created aremarkable sensation, “Beatlemania”.
Other groups such as the Rolling Stones turned even more openly tothemes of anger, frustration, and rebelliousness.
 Television began to turn to programming that reflected social andcultural conflict- as exemplified by the enormously popular All inthe Family, whose protagonist, Archie Bunker, was a lower-middle-class bigot.
The Mobilization of Minorities
Seeds of Indian Militancy 
Indians were the least prosperous, least healthy, and least stablegroup in the nation.

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