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THE INFLUENCE OF BUILDING ENVELOPE DESIGN TOWARDS INTERNAL HEAT GAIN, THERMAL COMFORT AND AC SYSTEM

THE INFLUENCE OF BUILDING ENVELOPE DESIGN TOWARDS INTERNAL HEAT GAIN, THERMAL COMFORT AND AC SYSTEM

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Published by fairus
The room thermal comfort can be realized through building envelope design related
to tropical architecture and/or green building design concepts. The design concept aims to
reduce the heat gain and minimize the cooling load for the mechanical air conditioning; it is one of
the primary focuses in the building energy policy nowadays. This paper discusses the use of air
conditioning system on the 8th & 9th floor of a building which used as an Auditorium. The study
was aimed to find the relationship between (1) the influences of building envelope design towards
internal heat gain, internal thermal comfort of the occupants and (2) the efficiency of air conditioning
system. The research steps were: (1) Measuring the internal temperature and its humidity, (2)
Administering data of the existing building envelope (orientation of the opening and building
materials), room volume, occupants activities and the micro climate analysis using archipac
software to find out the internal heat gain, the profile of temperature and humidity in the coolest
and hotest month every day of the year (3) Mapping the internal and the average thermal comfort
of the occupants. The result of the study shows that there is a different profiles of temperature in
the building which affecting the efficiency of the mechanical air conditioning. In the coolest
month, the daily period of comfort could merely covers the building for two hours long while in
the hottest month, 90 to almost 100 % of the building is overheated.
The room thermal comfort can be realized through building envelope design related
to tropical architecture and/or green building design concepts. The design concept aims to
reduce the heat gain and minimize the cooling load for the mechanical air conditioning; it is one of
the primary focuses in the building energy policy nowadays. This paper discusses the use of air
conditioning system on the 8th & 9th floor of a building which used as an Auditorium. The study
was aimed to find the relationship between (1) the influences of building envelope design towards
internal heat gain, internal thermal comfort of the occupants and (2) the efficiency of air conditioning
system. The research steps were: (1) Measuring the internal temperature and its humidity, (2)
Administering data of the existing building envelope (orientation of the opening and building
materials), room volume, occupants activities and the micro climate analysis using archipac
software to find out the internal heat gain, the profile of temperature and humidity in the coolest
and hotest month every day of the year (3) Mapping the internal and the average thermal comfort
of the occupants. The result of the study shows that there is a different profiles of temperature in
the building which affecting the efficiency of the mechanical air conditioning. In the coolest
month, the daily period of comfort could merely covers the building for two hours long while in
the hottest month, 90 to almost 100 % of the building is overheated.

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249
The Influence of Building Envelope Design Towards Internal Heat Gain, Thermal Comfort and AC System
THE INFLUENCE OF BUILDING ENVELOPE DESIGNTOWARDS INTERNAL HEAT GAIN, THERMALCOMFORT AND AC SYSTEM
Khotijah Lahji, Yasseri D. Apritasari and Eka Sediadi Rasyad
 Departement of Architecture, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Planning, Trisakti University, Jakarta, INDONESIA
iik_lahji@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT: The room thermal comfort can be realized through building envelope design relatedto tropical architecture and/or green building design concepts. The design concept aims toreduce the heat gain and minimize the cooling load for the mechanical air conditioning; it is one of the primary focuses in the building energy policy nowadays. This paper discusses the use of air conditioning system on the 8
th
& 9
th
floor of a building which used as an Auditorium. The studywas aimed to find the relationship between (1) the influences of building envelope design towardsinternal heat gain, internal thermal comfort of the occupants and (2) the efficiency of air conditioningsystem. The research steps were: (1) Measuring the internal temperature and its humidity, (2)Administering data of the existing building envelope (orientation of the opening and buildingmaterials), room volume, occupants activities and the micro climate analysis using
archipac
software to find out the internal heat gain, the profile of temperature and humidity in the coolestand hotest month every day of the year (3) Mapping the internal and the average thermal comfortof the occupants. The result of the study shows that there is a different profiles of temperature inthe building which affecting the efficiency of the mechanical air conditioning. In the coolestmonth, the daily period of comfort could merely covers the building for two hours long while inthe hottest month, 90 to almost 100 % of the building is overheated.
 Keywords: building envelope, heat gain, thermal comfort, air conditioning system
1.INTRODUCTION
The Indonesian climatic condition is tropical humid, with high temperature and high humidity. Thiscondition entails
overheating/uncomfortable
for the occupants of any building. High sun radiationthrough building envelope reates internal heatgain, resulted in a high load air conditioner (AC). This paper discusses the use of material, the orientation, and design of the building envelope which caninfluence internal heatgain in the building. The object of the research was an auditorium located onthe 8
th
& 9
th
floors of D building which consists of nine floors at Trisakti University in Jakarta. Theresearch steps were conducted in several ways e.g. : (1) by measuring the internal temperature andits humidity, (2) by measuring comfort of the occupants, (3) by gathering data the existing load andAC system, (4) by mapping the internal and the average thermal comfort of the occupants, (5) bygathering data of the existing building envelope (orientation of the opening and building materials),the room volume, the occupants activities and the micro climate analysis by using
archipac
softwareto find out the internal heat gain, the profile of temperature and humidity in the coolest and hottestmonth every day of the year.According to Santamouris
(1996) thermal performance
can be
 
understood
 
as indoor 
 
controlledmethod through the design of building envelope (orientation of the opening, characteristic and
4-Energy Efficiency.pmd23/11/29, 12:04 249
 
250
SENVAR + ISESEE 2008:
 Humanity + Technology
 physical of the building materials: massive/tranparants and the use of construction). Moreover, the
thermal 
 
 performance
is considered successful if indoor condition of the building is psycologicallyfelt comfortable by the occupants (o
ccupants sensation
).The use of AC system is an effort to reach the termal comfort. The empirical study done atBPD building in Jakarta states that the percentage load of AC heatgain in that office building consistsof 10-15% human heatgain, 40-50% of sun radiation through the window glasses, 15-20% of heattransmission through the massive envelope of the building, 7-8% of heat ventilation, and 8-10% of heat equipment and lighting (Simbolon, 1981). These measurements are applicable in gettingappropriate temperature and humidity of the AC system.
2.CLIMATIC CONDITION
The climatic condition in a year in Jakarta as it is shown in Table 1 that the average air temperatureis 24.1ºC-32.1°C, and the humidity rate (RH) is 52%-95%. The previous outdoor temperaturerepresents the rate score of thermal comfort.
Table 1:
The yearly climatic condition in Jakarta
 
JanFebMarAprMeiJunJulAgtSepOktNopDesT Max3030.631.832.532.932.832.932.632.932.632.231.2T av max32.132.132.132.132.132.132.132.132.132.132.132.1Sd max1.51.10.20.30.60.50.60.40.60.40.10.6T Min23.723.724.124.924.524.523.923.5242424.524.3Sd Min0.30.300.60.30.30.10.40.10.10.30.1T av Min24.124.124.124.124.124.124.124.124.124.124.124.1RH am9595949291.3908887.387.689.692.393.3RH pm6966.36360.35856.35252.3525858.664Rain3092803482971471463369747201271
Source
: BMG-Indonesia 2006
The climatic analysis employs
 psycometric chart 
method shows that indoor temperature everymounth of a year is uncomfortable for the occupants (overheating occupants sensation), or thiscondition is at above the comfort zone. The Szocolay’s theory (1987) describes about
the method  passive control,
and
 
this method is appropriate for humid tropical climate through indoor 
air movement 
. The air movement is important to decrease the temperature and humidity in order toreach indoor comfort zone. If the air/wind flows at the speed of 1 until 1,5 m/sec, the room will becomfort, as it is shown in Figure 1.The specific problem of humid tropical climate is overheating almost 8 until 10 hours everyday (33,3%-50%), it is usually happened from 10.00 until 15.00. This uncomfortable condition canonly be reduced by the use of AC system and the air/wind movement. In this study, the thermalcomfort and energy efficiency can be reached through the use of AC system by considering thehottest (May) and coolest months (January) as it appears in Table 1. The outdoor climatic condition
4-Energy Efficiency.pmd23/11/29, 12:04 250
 
251
The Influence of Building Envelope Design Towards Internal Heat Gain, Thermal Comfort and AC System
influences the internal temperature and humidity in which in the coolest month the load of ACsystem is least regarding the less heat radiation. As such in the hottest month, the load of AC systemwill be much more because the load of heat radiation through the building envelope is also consideredhottest.
3.OBJECT DESCRIPTION
The explanation in this section will cover measuring of the internal temperature and its humidity,gathering data of the existing building envelope, the room volume, the occupants activities and themicro climate analysis by using
archipac
software to find out the internal heat gain, the profile of temperature and humidity in the coolest and hottest month every day of the year, mapping thetemperatura, humidity and the occupants sensation.
Figure 1:
The Analysis of micro climate by
 psychrometric chart 
Source
: Analisis ARCHIPAK, Szocolay2002
4-Energy Efficiency.pmd23/11/29, 12:04 251

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