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Ballistic Missile Defense Technology - Weapons, Power, Communications, And Space Transportation - 883708

Ballistic Missile Defense Technology - Weapons, Power, Communications, And Space Transportation - 883708

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http://www.princeton.edu/~ota/disk2/1988/8837/883708.PDF
http://www.princeton.edu/~ota/disk2/1988/8837/883708.PDF

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02/14/2015

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Chapter 5
Ballistic Missile DefenseTechnology: Weapons, Power,Communications, andSpace Transportation
 
CONTENTS
Page
Introduction . ......................105Weapons . ..................,......105Kinetic-Energy Weapons (KEW) ....106Directed-Energy Weapons . .........123Power and Power Conditioning . ......142Space Power Requirements . ........142Space Power Generation Technology .143Power Conditioning . .. ..........145Communication Technology . .........14660-GHz Communication Links .. ....147Laser Communication Links . .......148Space Transportation . ..............148Space TransportationRequirements. . . ................149Space Transportation Alternatives ...149Space Transportation CostReduction . . . . . . ................153Conclusions . . . . ....................153Weapon Technology Conclusions ....153Space Power Conclusions. . .........155Space Communications Conclusion. ..l55Space Transportation Conclusions ...156Figures
Figure No.
Page
5-1.5-2a.5-2b.
5-2c.5-2d.
5-3a.
5-3b.
5-4.5-5.5-6a,
Orientation of SDI to RV .. ....111Space-Based Interceptor Mass v.Velocity . ....................114Number of Satellites v. SBIVelocity . ....................114Number of Space-BasedInterceptors v. Velocity.. .. ....114Constellation Mass v. SBIVelocity . ....................114Number of Projectiles v. SBIVelocity . ....................115SBI Constellation Mass v. SBIVelocity . ..............4.....115 Total SBI Constellation Mass inOrbit v. Booster Bum Time ....116Boost and Post-Boost KillEffectiveness (l,400 ICBMs v.Realistic’’ SBIs) . ............116Boost and Post-Boost KillEffectiveness (500 single-RVICBMs at three sites)... . ......117
5-6b.
5-7.5-8.5-9.
5-10.5-11.5-12.
5-13a.5-13b.
 Table
5-1.5-2.5-3.5-4.5-5.5-6.
5-7.
5-8.5-9.
5-10.
Boost and Post-Boost KillEffectiveness (500 single-RVICBMs atone site) . ...........117Boost and Post-Boost KillEffectiveness (200 medium-bum-booster” ICBMs at onesite). . . . . . . . . . . . .............118Schematic of an ElectromagneticLauncher (EML) or Railgun” ..119Lightweight Homing Projectile. .l2lIllustration of the RelationshipsBetween Laser Parameters andPower Density Projected on a Target . . . . . . . . . . .............125FEL Waveforms . .............125Schematic of a Neutral ParticleBeam Weapon.. . .............129Annual Space Launch Capacity .152Space Transportation . .........152 Tables
No.
Page
Key Issues for ElectromagneticLaunchers (EML) . .............120Characteristics of a Ground-BasedFEL Weapons System . .........124Characteristics of an HF LaserWeapons System. . .............127Characteristics of Directed EnergyWeapons Against a FullyResponsive Soviet Threat . ......130Possible Beam Steering andRetargeting Requirements forBoost-Phase Engagement . ......134Key Issues for Free ElectronLasers (FEL) . .................136Key Issues for the HF ChemicalLaser . . . . . . . . . . ...............138Neutral Particle Beam Issues ....139Estimated Power Requirementsfor Space Assets . ..............142Current U.S. Space LaunchInventory . . . . . . . ..............150
 
BallisticWeapons,
Chapter 5
Missile Defense Technology:Power, Communications, andSpace Transportation
INTRODUCTION
 This chapter reviews weapon technologies
weapons, power systems, and communicationrelevant to ballistic missile defense (BMD). Itsystems of most interest for the Strategic De-emphasizes the chemically propelled hit-to-killfense Initiative (SD I). Finally, it considers the
weapons most likely to form the basis of any
new space transportation system essential for
future U.S BMD deployment in this century.a space-based defense. The chapter also covers the directed-energy
WEAPONS
A weapon system must transfer a lethal dose
of energy from weapon to a target. All exist-ing weapons use some combination of kineticenergy (the energy of motion of a bullet, for
example), chemical energy, or nuclear energy
to disable the target. The SDI research pro-gram is exploring two major new types of 
weapon systems: directed-energy weapons and
ultra-high accuracy and high velocity hit-to-kill weapons. Not only have these weapons
never been built before, but no weapon of anytype has been based in space. Operating many
hundreds or thousands of autonomous weap-
ons platforms in space would itself be a major
technical challenge.
Directed-energy weapons (DEW) would killtheir prey without a projectile. Energy would
travel through space via a laser beam or a
stream of atomic or sub-atomic particles. Speed
is the main virtue. A laser could attack an ob- ject 1,000 km away in 3 thousandths of a sec-ond, while a high-speed rifle-bullet, for exam-
ple, would have to be fired 16 minutes beforeimpact with such a distant target. Clearly,
Note: Complete
defi”m”tions
of acronyms and
im”tial.z”sms
are
h“sted
in
Appen&”x
B of this report.
DEW, if they reach the necessary power levels,
would revolutionize ballistic missile defense.
DEWS offer the ultimate in delivery speed.
But they are not likely to have sufficient de-
ployed power in this century to destroy ballis-
tic missiles, and they certainly could not killthe more durable reentry vehicles (RVs). In
hopes of designing a system deployable before
the year 2000, the SDI research program has
emphasized increased speed and accuracy forthe more conventional kinetic-energy weapons
(KEW), such as chemically propelled rockets.
With speeds in the 4 to 7 km/s range, and withterminal or homing guidance to collide directly
with the target, these KEW could kill a sig-nificant number of today’s ballistic missiles.With sufficient accuracy, they would not re-quire chemical or nuclear explosives.Although DEWS will not be available forhighly effective ballistic missile defense dur-ing this century, they could play a significantrole in an early 1990s decision on whether todeploy any ballistic missile defense system. That is, the deployment decision could hinge
on our ability to persuade the Soviets (and our-
selves) that defenses would remain viable for
the foreseeable future. Kinetic-energy weapons
105

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