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Petroleum Facilites of Germany 1945 112

Petroleum Facilites of Germany 1945 112

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DISTRIBUTING - 217Introduction5.0 DISTRIBUTING
5.1 INTRODUCTIONThis section of the report deals with the consumption of petroleum productsand their substitutes and the facilities for the distribution of these products inGermany. Considerable attention is given to estimates of normal and wartime civilian consumption, to the use of substitute fuels, and to the rationing systems employed by the Germans. Available data on storage facilities at ocean terminals,strategic storage centers, and inland bulk plants are presented with, where possi
ble,
layout plans and location sketches of the major installations. A summary ofthe data on storage facilities is given in the tables on pages 310to 328, and amap showing all points in Germany where the existence of bulk storage is reportedappears on page 329. Statistics pertaining to prewar imports and exports of petroleum products are tabulated on pages 222 and 223.5.2 CONSUMPTION5.2.1 GeneralIn normal times the per capita consumption of petroleum products in Germany wasamong the highest in Europe. In 1938 total sales, including bunkers, by oil distributing companies in Germany amounted to something like 51,568,000 barrels (a).In the early part of the war Germany, due largely to supplies obtained from capturedand satellite territories, was not obliged to drastically reduce her consumption of
oil.
However, by early -1943 her prospects for an early victory had vanished and theincreasing military demands necessitated a drastic slash in civilian consumption.In 1943 allocations of liquid fuels and lubricants were reduced to a point close tothe very minimum necessary for efficient operation of the absolutely essential elements of production and transportation and civilian economy. Qualified analysts bypainstaking study of data from a multitude of sources have been able to construct abroad outline of Germany's consumption pattern and of quantities of products consumed that is believed to be fairly accurately indicative of actual conditions in
1943.
These conclusions are summarized below and figures are tabulated on page 221*While no such detailed estimates of consumption in 1944 are available, it isknown that available quantities have continued to decrease and have fallen considerably below the more or less basic minimum ration allocations of 1943. In fact, itis believed that by December 1944 the quantities available for civilian and industrial consumption had fallen below one third of the average consumption for 1943. Elyway of attempted compensation the use of substitute fuels was pushed as energeticallyas possible, but shortage of equipment,
fuel,
and manpower retarded this program.As the war progresses the increasing shortages in supplies of both liquid fuelsand lubricants and substitute fuels becomes progressively more serious and there isno doubt that allocations to civilian uses have for some time been reduced to belowthe level where the economy of the nation ceases to operate efficiently.5.2.2 Industrial and Civilian Consumption ofLiquid Petroleum Products in Germany During 1943Overall consumption.- Whereas up to 1942 liquid fuel (b) end lubricants consumption in Germany remained at a relatively high level as compared with peacetime requirements,the dire emergency in 1943 compelled the Nazis to sharply slash their(a) See statistics on page 292. *,,** #(b) Light motor fuel includes power alcohol, motor benzol, and liquid gas (propaneand hutane)
it
and when used as motor
fuel.
 
218 - DISTRIBUTINGConsumptionallocations of petroleum products for domestic civilian usages. For example, thebasic allowance of motor fuel and diesel oil for dealers and large consumers wasreduced as of March 1943, from 75 per cent to 50 per cent of the 1941 level.Estimates of consumption by category of use are tabulated on page 221.Although the 1943 allocations were probably close to the absolute minimum civitian requirements necessary to maintain the internal civil organization and theessential services such as transportation, fire and air raid protection, and healthand sanitation services, the amounts of such requirements are not entirely inflexible. Emergency measures of organization and substitution and the conversion ofeven smaller passenger cars and trucks, all of which was accelerated In 1943, undoubtedly permitted further reductions in civilian requirements of liquid fuels.Since 1943 an intensive program has been instituted in all cities having tramwaylines to convert street cars into freight carriers for local delivery service, thuseliminating many fuel consuming delivery trucks. Also, as Germany is forced backwithin her borders, some reductions in over-all requirements can be effected.Military requirements obviously remain paramount at all times and may make increasing incursions upon the non-military
uses.
Such incursions, while not having immediate effect, do impose a cumulative limitation on the over-all output of theeconomy that supports the military effort. The consequence of insufficient oilsupplies in an economy constantly being adjusted to increasing oil-deficiency isnot a dramatic breakdown but a gradual process of attrition.Road transportation.- In September 1942 road transport was organized under the"Amtsgruppe Motorisierung" of the Ministry of Armaments. This reorganization wasundertaken to cope with the problems created by the strained motor fuel positionof the Reich. A smaller number of vehicles with lower fuel rations per unit hadto maintain transportation at practically the same volume as in 1942. In spite ofall efforts of reorganization and substitution, however, a slowing up in the wholeeconomy could not be avoided.Motorcycles.-The number of motorcycles in use in July 1943 has been estimatedat 650,000 or about 15 per cent below the 1942 figure. No motorcycles for civilianuse have been produced for over four years, and the rate of depreciation must beincreasing rapidly. Because of the scarcity of liquid fuel supplies, unit consumption per motorcycle is estimated at .1 metric tons a year, or slightly below the 1942allocation.Private cars and taxis.- The total number of private cars and taxis in use inJuly 1943 has been estimated at 200,000 as compared with 225,000 in 1942. The number of vehicles available for official use (government, police, and
Party),
emergency services (hospitals, fire services, ARP), doctors, and taxi services was verysmall. In most towns, for instance, taxis could only be obtained for specific emergency
uses.
Doctors, who had previously been permitted to use gasoline-driven
cars,
were no longer able to run them.However, in June 1943 most private cars still in use were running on liquid
fuel.
The restrictions imposed on the use of liquid gas prevented any large increase in the use of this fuel between June 1942 and June 1943. Conversions togaseous and solid substitute fuels did not start on a large scale until late in 1943,It is estimated that of the total number of
cars,
175,000 use petroleum, 15,000liquid gas, and 10,000 gaseous and solid substitute fuels.The estimated unit consumption per car is
#
6 tons per year. The use of a'relatively low figure for the unit requirements in the case of all liquid fuel usingvehicles is justified, because the fuel shortage prevents full utilization of thesevehicles. This fact is frequently mentioned in the German press. Moreover, thereis no assurance that fuel rations for vehicles employed in essential war work willalways be honored.Busses.-The number of busses in use in July 1943 is estimated at 11,000 asagainst 12,000 in 1942. By July 1943 probably
5,000
busses (3,000 of them dieselengined) were converted to liquid gas (see Deutsche Bergwerks Zeitung, 31 July 1943)1,000 to city gas, and
2,000
to solid fuels. About
3,000
were still using liauid *
fuel,
1,000 of them probably gasoline and
2,000
diesel oil. The unit consumption is
 
DISTRIBUTING - 219Consumptionestimated at 12 metric tons a year for gasoline engined busses and 10 tons fordiesel vehicles.Trucks.-There are numerous indications that the number of civilian trucks inuse in 1943 was considerably lower than the pre-war figure and also below that for
1942.
The total number of trucks in use as of June 1943 has been put at 320,000units compared with 350,000 units in 1942. This figure does not include some25,000 vehicles driven by electric motors. Of this total, it is estimated that105,000 were generator trucks, 12,000 used gaseous fuels, 80,000 were driven byliquid gas, 10,000 by diesel oil and 113,000 by light motor
fuel.
The decline inthe total number of trucks in use was caused by the shortage of liquid fuels, bythe increasing rate of depreciation, by the effects of the tire shortage, and bythe enormous military requirements for trucksBecause of the large number of less efficient substitute fueled trucks includedin this total (117,000
vehicles),
the actual decline in the efficiency of roadtransportation was even greater than indicated by the above figures. If all the320,000 trucks were fully utilized their efficiency would correspond to that of280,000 liquid fueled trucks. Though fuel allocations per truck in 1943 were probably at a level of only two-thirds of the peacetime volume, the ton-mileage pertruck was probably not much below the prewar figure, as a better utilization ofloading space per trip (including return journeys) would compensate for reducedmileage. However, as there are many indications that stringency of fuel supplieshas prevented full utilization of all liquid fueled truoks, annual unit consumption in the case of gasoline-driven trucks has been estimated at three
tons.
Diesel trucks.- It is very likely that a large part of the civilian truckswhich were requisitioned by the army consisted of medium and heavy trucks. Undoubtedly most of the heavy trucks were diesel engined, for diesel trucks were predominant among Germany's heavy vehicles. They were largely used in long distanceroad transportation, which was cut down severely immediately after the outbreak ofwar.It is likely, therefore, that the number Of civilian medium and heavy truckshas been reduced considerably, and that, in particular, the number of heavy dieseltrucks left for industrial uses is very small. The number of diesel trucks incivilian service has been estimated at 25,000 and it is assumed that 15-16,000 havebeen converted to substitute fuels and that the rest still use diesel oil. Annualper unit consumption is estimated at 3,5
tons.
Due in part to the fact that the German synthetic oil plants have been obligedto concentrate on the production of gasoline to the detriment of other products,diesel oil has been particularly in short supply in Germany.Since May, 1943, SDKI (Sonderdieselkraftstoff
I),
a mixture of two parts gasoline and one part gas oil, has been used wherever fire risk does not prevent itsemployment.Lubricating oil for road vehicles.- Lubricating oil requirements are calculatedthroughout as three per cent (by
weight),
of the motor fuel consumption of roadvehicles.Railways.- Though some minor reductions have been obtained by conversions tosubstitute TueIs, the estimated total reduction of the oil requirements of the German railways is small.Inland shipping.- In order to relieve the load on other elements of the transportation system, every effort has been made to increase the freight tonnage carriedby inland shipping. It is reported that inland waterways carried over forty percent more traffic in 1942, than in 1940. This was no doubt effected largely bymore efficient organization and better utilization of shipping space. Some vesselshave been converted to generator gas propulsion and in some cases motor barges havebeen used as dumb barges in tow of steam
tugs.
Bunkers.- No exact information is available on Axis shipping tonnage used in1943in northern waters and in the Atlantic Ocean, but it is estimated that notless'than two million gross tons were actually in use in 1943. As of December 1942,

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