Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Design of a Robust Modem for Power Line Communications

Design of a Robust Modem for Power Line Communications

Ratings: (0)|Views: 3 |Likes:
Published by Jimmy Fallony
We design a power line communication (PLC) modem robust to frequency-selective and timevarying channel condition. We consider the use of an adaptive CPFSK modulation scheme at a transmission rate of up to 2Mbps and TDMA scheme for multiple access. We propose a
synchronization scheme for robust and fast frame synchronization and the channel change detector for adaptive modulation. The performance of the designed modem is verified by computer simulation. Numerical results show that the use of the proposed modem can transmit data without
interruption even in the case of sudden change of the channel condition.
We design a power line communication (PLC) modem robust to frequency-selective and timevarying channel condition. We consider the use of an adaptive CPFSK modulation scheme at a transmission rate of up to 2Mbps and TDMA scheme for multiple access. We propose a
synchronization scheme for robust and fast frame synchronization and the channel change detector for adaptive modulation. The performance of the designed modem is verified by computer simulation. Numerical results show that the use of the proposed modem can transmit data without
interruption even in the case of sudden change of the channel condition.

More info:

Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Jimmy Fallony on Apr 08, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

06/22/2014

pdf

text

original

 
Design of a Robust modem for Power Line Communications
Hyunseok Yu, Eunwoo Ahn and Yong-Hwan LeeSchool of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Seoul National UniversityKwanak P.O. Box 34, Seoul, 151-744 KoreaE-mail:ylee@snu.ac.kr 
//
ABSTRACT
/
We design a power line communication (PLC)modem robust to frequency-selective and time-varying channel condition. We consider the useof an adaptive CPFSK modulation scheme at atransmission rate of up to 2Mbps and TDMAscheme for multiple access. We propose asynchronization scheme for robust and fast framesynchronization and the channel change detectorfor adaptive modulation. The performance of thedesigned modem is verified by computersimulation. Numerical results show that the useof the proposed modem can transmit data withoutinterruption even in the case of sudden change of the channel condition.
/
I. INTRODUCTION
/
Since the power-line network is knownubiquitous and inexpensive, there have been alarge number of studies on the use of power-linefor communications. In particular, the power linecommunication (PLC) has been considered asone of major schemes for home-networking. It iswell understood that the power line hasunpredictable characteristics. The gain variationis very large depending upon the position andkind of the load [1]. The gain variation due tocapacitive loads can be as much as -100dB/km. The PLC channel has time-varying attenuationcharacteristics due to sudden change of loads. The nature of power-line may not be appropriatefor high-speed communications [2]. Periodicnoise synchronized with electric appliances andnon-periodic impulsive noise due to the switchingcan last up-to 100
µ
sec severely degrades theperformance [2].Low-speed modems using simple schemessuch as FSK which has low spectral efficiency,are developed at the beginning [3]. Recently,there have been a number of modemdevelopment based on the spread spectrum (SS)and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing(OFDM) methods. Since the SS scheme requireslarge bandwidth to obtain a large processing gain,it may not appropriate for high-speedcommunications and it has inferior performancecompared to the OFDM [4]. OFDM schememodulates each sub-channel independently, itmay be suitable for frequency selective PLCchannel, appropriate for high-speedcommunications. However, implementationcomplexity compared to single carrier modemand it may require an expensive analog-front-enddue to high PAR. Although OFDM is knownrobust to continuous wave interference but itshows weakness to impulsive noise in PLCenvironment [5].Although FSK has low spectral efficiency, butit has many advantages such as lowimplementation complexity, low PAR androbustness to amplitude variation, quite suitablefor applications to PLC. Moreover it hasrobustness to impulsive noise [5]. The use of non-coherent detection and diversity was appliedto the design of FSK modem for PLC [6]. It wasreported that the use of an appropriate hoppingpattern can double the transmission rate [7]. Theperformance can further be improved bycombining the coding and diversity to overcomethe interference and impulsive noise [8].Most of previous works have concentrated onthe use of novel modulation scheme, diversity,and coding schemes to be robust to unpredictablechannel condition, but not adaptive ones. As aresult, it may not provide reliablecommunications whenever the channel undergoessudden change. Although the use of adaptivefrequency allocation and rate control method wasconsidered in [9], no analytic design method wasdescribed. Moreover, it needs to consider
 
BitsourceChannelcoderFormatterCPFSK ModulatorFilter
hml
BinpowercontrollerAFE
m
EnvelopedetectorChannelestimatorDeformatterChanneldecoderSlicerChannelchangedetector
wkMhkj|Mkhj
Figure 1: The designed PLC transceiver
 multiple access schemes efficient for PLCenvironment. In this paper, we consider the use of adaptive schemes for CPFSK modem to providestable transmission by adjusting the modulationparameters in real time. By employing the lineprobing method, the modem parameters areinitialized optimally to the given channelcondition [10]. We use a channel change detectorto adjust the modulation parameters whenever thechannel condition suddenly changes, transmittingdata without interruption. We consider the use of  TDMA scheme to support multiple users in aconservative manner. Among multiple accessprotocols, TDMA scheme is employed to avoidthe problems such as the carrier sensing andhidden node problem in the carrier sensingmultiple access [11]. Full duplex transmission isprovided by using a time dividing duplex (TDD).In a TDMA scheme, it is required to reliablyprovide the frame synchronization. We propose anovel frame synchronization method. This paper is organized as follows. Thestructure of designed PLC modem is described inSection II. Section III describes a framesynchronization algorithm. We design a simplebut efficient channel change detector in SectionIV, and conclusions are drawn in Section V.
//
II. ADAPTIVE CPFSK MODEM
//
Fig 1. depicts the structure of the designed PLCmodem. Each frame consists of eight slots. Thefirst slot in the frame is used as the control slot toprovide frame synchronization and adaptivemodulation. As depicted in fig. 2, the control slotincludes the training symbols for framesynchronization and MAC header forinitialization in the downlink. A guard interval isinserted in the beginning of the uplink slot to
/
mGzthjwmjz
yz}k
(a) downlink control slot structure
mGzthjwmjznw
yz}k
(b) uplink control slot structureFigure 2: The structure of main control slot
avoid possible collision between the uplink andthe downlink slot. Padding is used to just keepthe fixed slot size and CRC (Cyclic redundancycode) is used as FCS. The rest of seven slots areused for user data transmission and these slotsinclude the information about adaptivemodulation.During the initialization process, the modemdetermines the modulation parameters based onthe line probing result. The symbol rate,modulation level (i.e., the number of tones) andcarrier frequency are chosen to transmit the datawith a BER lower than the desired one, whilemaximizing the transmission rate [10]. Since thechannel gain is frequency selective, the transmitpower of each tone is also controlled so that thereceived tones have equal power. The transmitter sends the data with modulationparameters set by the initialization process. Sincethe channel is abruptly changed, it is required toadjust the modulation parameter to maintain thetransmission without interrupt. We employ achannel change detector to detect a suddenchange of the channel condition. Whenever thechannel change is detected, the modulationparameters are adjusted using a simplified lineprobing module running in a background mode.
III. FRAME SYNCHRIZATION
/
It is first required to establish the framesynchronization for reception of data in a TDMAsystem. In conventional schemes, known tonesignals are used for frame synchronization.However, it may not be applicable to the PLCenvironment because it is not easy to determinethe threshold level for tone detection according tothe unpredictable channel condition. We proposea robust frame synchronization scheme asdepicted in Fig. 3.
 
A pseudo-noise (PN) sequence with period
N
 is transmitted
M
times for the purpose of framesynchronization. Then, the output of the matchedfilter can have
M
repeated peaks. Assumingthat the received signal is over-sampled at a rateo
/
 T L
,where
L
is the over-sampling ratio,the output of the matched filter at
/, 0,...,1
t nT lT L l L
= + =
can be represented as
],[],[
*
lnlnz
T
rc
=
. (1)
c
is a
N
-dimensional vector given by
 TN
ccc
],...,,[
21
=
c
(2)where
((/21))
 j iT Li
c e
φ 
+
=
,
1
()()/
ik ik
t I t iT I T
φ π π 
=−∞
= +
for
 TitiT
)1(
+
and
i
I
,
Ni
,...,2,1
=
isobtained by mapping PN sequence into theamplitude levels
1
±
.
[,]
n l
r
is a
N
-dimensional vector representing A/D convertedsamples whose element is given by
[,] [((1)),((2)),...,()] 
 T
lTnl r n N TLlT lTr n N T r nTL L
= + ++ + +
r
. (3)Here, the superscript
 T
denotes the transpose of a vector. Note that the received signal
)(
tr
isfrequency-shifted to the baseband before the A/Dconversion.Let
)(
md
w
,
Mm
,...,2,1
=
be the position of the maximum of 
[,]
z n l
in the
m
-th block,each of which comprises
LN
samples. Definethe test function by
))()1()1(sgn()(
mddNLmam T
wwD
+=
(4)
Žƌƈ'şƋƌƌƊ
 T/L
tG
],[
ln
r
*
c
],[
lnz
)(
tr
)(
md
w
/
Figure 3: Block diagram of the proposedframe synchronizer
where
sgn()1
x
=
for
0
x
and zero, otherwise. Then, a frame synchronization can be declared if 
1 )(
2
=
=
MmD
m T
. (5)Let
[,]
wnl
be the absolute value of thematched filter output and
/
 T L
δ 
be the timingoffset between the received PN signal and thevector
c
. It can be shown that i
/2/2
L L
δ 
< <
,
*1*1
[,][,](exp()[,])
NiiNi i ii
wnl c r nlc c jI vnlL
δ π 
==
= = +
(5)is Rician distributed, i.e.,
2222222222
cos()sin()()exp()2cos()sin()()
Wv vov
l lw NwL Lf wN Nl lw NL LIN
π π σ σ π π σ 
+ += +
(6)where assume
2
(Re([,]))(Im([,]))
v
Var v n l Var v n l
σ 
= =
,which is the variance of the additive noise term,and
()
o
I
is the zeroth-order modified Besselfunction of the first kind. For
/2
L
δ 
, it can beshown that
[,]
wnl
is Rayleigh distributed, i.e.,
222
()exp() .22
wnv
w wf wNN NN
σ σ 
= ++
(7)When we denote the event which PN sequenceis located in each block as
1
H
and thealternative case as
0
H
. The true detectionprobability
D
P
of the frame synchronizationcan be represented as
=
==
MmD
HmP
21D
}1)(Prob{T 
. (8) The probability of false alarm
F
P
can berepresented as
}1)({Prob
02
Hm TP
DMmF
==
=
(9)and
0
prob{()1}(21)/
D
 T m H a LN
= = +
since
)(
md
w
is uniformly distributed.
F
P
can berewritten as
1
12
    
+=
MF
LNaP
. (10)

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->