Examining the feasibility of converting New York State’s all-purpose energyinfrastructure to one using wind, water, and sunlight
Mark Z. Jacobson
, Hind Katkhuda
, Brian Miranda
, Navid A. Chowdhury
, Larson Plano
, Anthony R. Ingraffea
Atmosphere/Energy Program, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
Institute of Transportation Studies, U.C. Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
PSE Healthy Energy, NY, USA
Pepacton Institute LLC, USA
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
H I G H L I G H T S
New York State’s all-purpose energy can be derived from wind, water, and sunlight.
The conversion reduces NYS end-use power demand by
The plan creates more jobs than lost since most energy will be from in state.
The plan creates long-term energy price stability since fuel costs will be zero.
The plan decreases air pollution deaths 4000/yr ($33 billion/yr or 3% of NYS GDP).
a r t i c l e i n f o
Received 14 September 2012Accepted 18 February 2013
Renewable energyAir pollutionGlobal warming
a b s t r a c t
This study analyzes a plan to convert New York State’s (NYS’s) all-purpose (for electricity, transporta-tion, heating/cooling, and industry) energy infrastructure to one derived entirely from wind, water,and sunlight (WWS) generating electricity and electrolytic hydrogen. Under the plan, NYS’s 2030all-purpose end-use power would be provided by 10% onshore wind (4020 5-MW turbines), 40%offshore wind (12,700 5-MW turbines), 10% concentrated solar (387 100-MW plants), 10% solar-PVplants (828 50-MW plants), 6% residential rooftop PV (
5 million 5-kW systems), 12% commercial/government rooftop PV (
500,000 100-kW systems), 5% geothermal (36 100-MW plants), 0.5% wave(1910 0.75-MW devices), 1% tidal (2600 1-MW turbines), and 5.5% hydroelectric (6.6 1300-MW plants,of which 89% exist). The conversion would reduce NYS’s end-use power demand
37% and stabilizeenergy prices since fuel costs would be zero. It would create more jobs than lost because nearly all NYSenergy would now be produced in-state. NYS air pollution mortality and its costs would decline by
4000 (1200–7600) deaths/yr, and $33 (10–76) billion/yr (3% of 2010 NYS GDP), respectively, alonerepaying the 271 GW installed power needed within
17 years, before accounting for electricity sales.NYS’s own emission decreases would reduce 2050 U.S. climate costs by
2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This is a study to examine the technical and economic feasi-bility of and propose policies for converting New York State’s(NYS’s) energy infrastructure in all sectors to one powered bywind, water, and sunlight (WWS). The plan is a localized micro-cosm of that developed for the world and U.S. byJacobson andDelucchi (2009,2011)andDelucchi and Jacobson (2011).
Recently, other plans involving different levels of energy conver-sion for some or multiple energy sectors have been developed atnational or continental scales (e.g.,Alliance for Climate Protection,2009;Parsons-Brinckerhoff, 2009;Kemp and Wexler, 2010;Price-
Waterhouse-Coopers, 2010;Beyond Zero Emissions, 2010;European
Climate Foundation (ECF), 2010;European Renewable Energy Council(EREC), 2010;World Wildlife Fund, 2011).
Limited plans are currently in place in New York City (PlaNYC,2011) and NYS (Power, 2011) to help the city and state, respec-
tively, provide predictable and sustainable energy, improve the
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Please cite this article as: Jacobson, M.Z., et al., Examining the feasibility of converting New York State’s all-purpose energyinfrastructure to one using wind, water, and sunlight. Energy Policy (2013),http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.02.036i