The following terms are taken from the research by Dr. Hugh Baird
This is a process of comparing students with other students or with a predetermined standard. It is also a process that is used to rank students.Evaluation which measures student learning in order to identify how well they arelearning or how much of the subject matter they have mastered
in order to help themlearn more or to help the teacher to improve ongoing instruction
Evaluationwhich tests students' performance to determine students' final overall assimilation of course material and/or overall instructional method effectiveness is
3. Norm-referenced Evaluation:
Norm-referenced evaluation is evaluation based on acomparison of a student's performance with one or more other student's performance onthe same test.
4. Criterion-referenced evaluation
is evaluation based on a comparison of a student's performance with a preset performance standard which is determined independently of the test, or test scores.
The validity of a test may be defined as the
degree to which a test measureswhat it is supposed to measure
. Since validity is a matter of
, it is incorrect to saythat a test is either valid or invalid. All tests have some degree of validity for any purposefor which they are used; however, some are much more valid than others.
Reliability refers to the consistency of test results.