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Table Of Contents

Introduction to Distribution Automation Systems
1.1Historical Background
1.2Distribution System Topology and Structure
1.3Distribution Automation (DA) and Control
2.2Complex Power Concepts
2.2.1Power Equations
2.2.1.1Resistive Element
2.2.1.2Inductive Element
2.2.1.3Capacitive Element
2.2.2Single-Phase Power Formulations
2.2.3Balanced Three-Phase Power Formulations
2.3Balanced Voltage to Neutral-Connected System
2.3.1Wye- or Y-Connected System
2.5Per-Unit System
2.6Calculation of Power Losses
2.7Voltage Regulation Techniques
2.7.2Tap-Changing Method for Voltage Regulation
2.7.3Voltage-Regulating Transformers
2.7.4Phase Shifter or Regulating Transformer
2.8Voltage-Sag Analysis and Calculation
2.9Equipment Modeling
2.9.1Power Transformers
2.9.2Distribution Transformers
2.9.2.1Principles and Operating Fundamentals
2.9.3Autotransformer Model
2.9.4Cogenerator Model
2.9.5Synchronous Generator Model
2.9.6Inverter-Connected Generator in Photovoltaic Systems
2.9.7Synchronous Generator Model
2.10Components Modeling
2.10.1Line Model in Distribution Systems
2.10.2Shunt Capacitor Model
2.10.3Switch Model
2.10.4Load Models
2.15.1.3Method 3: Bus-Impedance Network Method
2.16Illustrative Examples
2.16.2Transformer Short Circuit during an Open-Circuit Test
2.16.3Unbalanced Set of Voltages
2.16.4Newton-Raphson Method
2.16.5Polar Formulation of Load-Flow Equations
2.16.6Gauss-Seidel Method
Distribution System Protection and Control
3.1.1Introduction to Symmetrical Components
3.1.2Sequence Networks Used in Fault Analysis
3.2Single Line-to-Ground Fault
3.3Double Line-to-Ground Fault on Phase B and C
3.4Three-Phase Fault Analysis
3.5Line-to-Ground and Line-to-Line Faults
3.5.1Single Line-to-Ground Fault
3.5.2Line-to-Line Fault
3.6Protection Systems
3.6.2Instrument Transformers
3.6.2.1Accounting for Saturation in CT
3.6.3Reclosers
3.6.5Sectionalizer
3.7Protective Relay Technology
3.7.1Digital Relaying
3.7.2Electromechanical Relay Technology
3.7.3Induction Disc Relays
3.7.3.2Example 2, Radial System Protection
3.8System Protection in General
3.9.1Line Protection with Impedance Distance Relays
3.9.1.1Directional Overcurrent Relays
3.9.1.2Impedance Relay
3.9.2Mho Relays
3.9.3Ohm Relays
3.9.4Generator, Buses, and Transformer
3.9.4.1Generator Protection
3.9.4.2Bus Protection with Differential Relays
3.9.4.3Transformer Protection with Differential Relays
3.10Illustrative Examples
3.10.1Example 1
3.10.2Example 2
3.10.3Example 3
3.10.4Example 4, Three-Phase Fault
3.10.5Example 5, Single-Line-to-Ground (SLG) Fault
4.2Reliability Evaluation
4.2.1Inputs Required for Historical Assessment
4.3Terminology/Definitions
4.4Reliability Indices
4.5Methods of Reliability Analysis
4.5.1Analytical Methods
4.5.2State Space Diagrams
4.5.2.1Case A, Series Components
4.5.2.2Case B, Parallel Systems
4.5.2.3Case C, Series and Parallel System
4.6Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) Method
4.7Event-Tree Analysis Method
4.8Fault-Tree Analysis Method
4.9Unavailability of Power Calculations from the Cut Set
4.9.1Fault Tree Based on Minimal Cut Set
Minimum cut set:
4.9.2Nonminimal Cut Set in Complete Unavailability
4.10Simulation Techniques for Reliability Analysis
4.11.1Monte Carlo Simulation Method
4.11.1.1Sequential Monte Carlo Method
4.11.1.2Nonsequential Monte Carlo Simulation
4.11.1.3General Statement: Monte Carlo Simulation
4.12Evaluation of Distribution Reliability Analysis Method
4.13Reliability Database Design
4.13.1DISREL
4.13.1.1General Information on DISREL
4.13.1.2Main Features
4.13.1.3Program Capabilities
4.13.1.4Applications of DISREL
4.14Maintenance and Reliability
4.14.1Repair-to-Failure Process
4.14.2Repair Failure: Repair Process
4.14.3Failure-to-Repair Process
4.14.4Combined Reliability
4.15Maintenance of Distribution Systems
4.15.1Preventive Maintenance
4.15.2Corrective Maintenance
4.16Reliability-Centered Maintenance
4.17Security and Reliability-Centered Maintenance
4.18.1Overhead Lines
4.18.2Circuit Breakers
4.18.3Transformers
4.18.4Substation Equipment
4.19Illustrative Examples
4.19.1Example 1
4.19.2Example 2
4.19.3Example 3
4.19.4Example 4
Distribution Automation and Control Functions
5.2Demand-Side Management
5.2.2Conceptual Overview of Methodology for DSM Studies
5.3Voltage/VAr Control
5.3.1Methods of Voltage/VAr in Distribution Automation
5.3.2Evaluation of Methods Used for Voltage/VAr Control
5.3.3Modeling of Voltage/VAr Control Options
5.3.4Formulation of Voltage/VAr
5.3.5System Operating Constraints
5.3.6Methodology
5.4Fault Detection (Distribution Automation Function)
5.4.1.1Harmonic Sequence Component Technique
5.4.1.2Amplitude Ratio Technique
5.4.1.3Phase Relationship Technique
5.4.1.4Energy Technique
5.4.1.5Randomness Technique
5.4.2Modeling of Faults/Classification
5.5Trouble Calls
5.6Restoration Functions
5.6.1Evaluation of Methods
5.6.2Optimization Formulation
5.6.3Optimization Constraints
5.6.4Methodology
5.7Reconfiguration of Distribution Systems
5.7.1Methods Used for Reconfiguration
5.7.2Formulation of Modeling of Reconfiguration
5.7.2.1Method of Load Balancing 1
5.7.2.2Method of Load Balancing 2
5.7.2.3Method of Minimizing Voltage Deviation
5.7.2.4Algorithm for Single-Loop Voltage Minimization
5.8Power Quality
5.8.2New Approaches of Power Quality
5.9Optimization Techniques
5.9.1Objectives
5.9.2Constraints
5.9.3Classical Solution
5.9.4Linear Programming
5.9.5Mixed-Integer Programming
5.9.6Interior-Point Linear Programming
5.9.7Sequential Quadratic Programming
5.10Illustrative Examples
5.10.1Example 1
Intelligent Systems in Distribution Automation
6.2Distribution Automation Function
6.3Artificial Intelligence Methods
6.3.1Expert System Techniques
6.3.2Artificial Neural Networks
6.3.2.1Evolution of Connection Weights
6.3.3Fuzzy Logic
6.3.3.1Fuzzy Sets and Systems
6.3.3.3Fuzzy Systems, Complexity, and Ambiguity
6.3.4Genetic Algorithms (GA)
6.4Intelligent Systems in Distribution Automation
6.4.1DSM and AI
6.5Voltage/VAr Control
6.6Network Reconfiguration via AI
6.7.1Use of AI Techniques for Fault Analysis
Renewable Energy Options and Technology
7.2Distributed Generation
7.3Working Definition and Classification of Renewable Energy
7.4Renewable Energy Options
7.4.1.1Modeling
7.4.1.2PV Systems
7.4.1.3V-I Characteristics
7.4.2Wind Turbine Systems
7.4.2.1Modeling
7.4.2.2Impact of Tower Height on Wind Power
7.4.2.3Emission Control Technologies
7.4.3Biomass-Bioenergy
7.4.4Small and Micro Hydropower
7.5Other Nonrenewable Energy Sources
7.5.1Fuel Cell
7.5.1.1Operation of Fuel Cells
7.5.1.2Sample Calculation
7.5.2Ocean Energy
7.5.3Geothermal Heat Pumps
7.5.4Microturbine and Sterling Engine
7.5.4.1Description
7.5.4.2Sterling Engine
7.5.5Comparison
7.6Distributed Generation Concepts and Benefits
7.6.1Categories of DG
7.6.2Criteria for DG Concepts
7.6.3DG Benefits
7.7Illustrative Examples
7.7.1Example 1
7.7.2Example 2
7.7.3Example 3
7.7.4Example 4
7.7.5Example 5
7.7.6Example 6
Distribution Management Systems
8.1Introduction to EMS
8.1.1DMS and EMS
8.2Functions of EMS
8.3SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition)
8.5.5.6Reconfiguration Function
8.5.6Distribution System Analysis (DSA)
8.5.7Load Management System (LMS)
8.5.8Geographic Information System (GIS)
8.5.9Customer Information System (CIS)
8.6Automatic Meter Reading (AMR)
8.6.1Advanced Billing
8.6.2Special Features and Benefits of AMR
8.6.3Advancement in AMR Technology
8.6.4Advances in Billing Technology
8.7Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) in Distribution Systems
8.7.1Cost-Benefit Analysis Methodology
8.7.2Function/Payback Correlation
9.1.1What is Telecommunication?
9.2Telecommunication in Principle
9.3Data Communication in Power System Distribution Network
9.4Signal Representation
9.4.1Communication Technology for Signal Description
9.5Types of Telecommunication Media
9.5.1Copper Circuit
9.5.2Twisted Pair
9.5.3Coaxial Cable
9.5.4Fiber Optics
9.5.5Microwave/Radio
9.5.6Cellular Transmission
9.6Communication Modulation Techniques
9.6.1Amplitude Modulation (AM)
9.6.2Frequency Modulation (FM)
9.6.2.1Pulse Modulation (PM)
9.6.2.2Frequency Modulation
9.6.2.3Amplitude Modulation
9.6.3Modulation Indices
9.6.4Digital Modulation
9.6.4.1Asynchronous/Synchronous Communications
9.6.4.2Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs)
9.7Communication Networking
9.7.1Local Area Network
9.7.1.1Method of Transmission in LAN
9.7.1.2LAN Topologies
9.7.2Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
9.7.3Wide Area Network (WAN)
9.7.3.1Types of WAN Connection
9.9Communication Standards Overview
9.9.1Standards Bodies
9.9.2Suite of Standards
9.9.3Interconnection Standards and Regulations
9.10OSI Model
9.10.1Description of OSI Model
9.10.1.1Transport Layers or Lower Layers
9.10.1.2Application Layers or Upper Layers
9.10.2Message Handling
9.11Distribution Network Protocol (DNP3)
9.11.1DNP3 Protocol Three-Layer Structure Description
9.12Utility Communication Architecture (UCA)
9.12.1Overview and Application
9.13Power-Line Carrier Communication
9.13.1Introduction
9.13.2PLC Architecture
9.13.2.1Line Traps
9.13.2.2Line-Tuning Units
9.13.2.3Hybrids
9.13.3Broadband over Power Lines (BPL)
9.13.4Standards
9.13.5Current Trends and Applications
9.14Security in Telecommunications and Information Technology
9.14.1Vulnerabilities, Threats, and Risks
9.14.2Security Architecture Elements in ITU-T X.805
9.14.3Privacy and Data Confidentiality
9.14.4Authentication
9.14.5Data Integrity
9.14.6Nonrepudiation
9.14.7Other Dimensions Defined in X.805
9.14.8Security Framework Requirements
9.14.9Information Security Goals
9.15Illustrative Examples
9.15.1Example 1
Epilogue
10.2Protection
10.3Demand Response
10.4Communication Advances
10.5Microgrid
10.6Standards and Institutional Barriers
10.7Pricing and Billing
Glossary
References
Index
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